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The Giza Necropolis stands on a limestone plateau overlooking the Nile valley, and visible from the house-tops of Cairo, now a modern city with over a million inhabitants.
In the Old Kingdom its pyramids were visible from the walls of Memphis, then the capital of Egypt, probably with a population of less than a hundred thousand. All the pyramids of the Old Kingdom, from Abu Roash on the north to Medum on the south, are to be reckoned as belonging to Memphis, but the special necropolis of Memphis is at Saqqarah, near the old capital built by Menes. As far as we now know, that necropolis began with a great private mastaba built in the reign of Menes, first king of Dyn. I, and was continued by other mastabas of Dyns. I-IV (the Archaic Cemetery). It finally merged into the field of well-known stone mastabas of Dyns. V-VI. The first royal tomb built in the Saqqarah Necropolis appears to have been the Step Pyramid, the beautiful tomb of Zoser, first king of Dyn. III. No other royal pyramids were constructed there until after Dyn. IV, when certain kings of Dyns. V and VI selected sites around the tomb of Zoser.
The tomb of Zoser was placed not in the Archaic Cemetery, but apart from it to the south on a plateau of rather bad limestone. The other kings of Dyns. III and IV whose pyramids have been identified, selected sites farther away from the capital city, sometimes building close to older cemeteries and sometimes selecting entirely new sites. In most cases the quality of the stone available for quarrying and that under the projected site had some influence in the selection of the place. In addition to the quality of the rock and the existence of older cemeteries, the proximity of royal estates, the summer residence, or the birthplace of the king may have been factors in the selection of the site.
The Giza Necropolis is one of these Memphite royal cemeteries, and contains the burial-places of three kings of Dyn. IV — Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus, who resided at Memphis.
CHEOPS AND HIS PLACE IN THE LIST OF KINGS
The family relationship of Cheops was definitely established by the tomb of his mother, Hetepheres I, the secret tomb found in 1925 in front of the first Giza pyramid. Cheops was a son of Sneferuw by Queen Hetep-heres I, a princess of the blood royal and therefore probably a daughter of Huni, the predecessor of Sneferuw. Thus our king was descended from the older royal line of Dyn. III His descendants who came to the throne were his two sons Radedef and Chephren, his grandson Mycerinus, and his great-grandson Shepseskaf. For the present purpose it is sufficient to mark him as the second king of Dyn. IV, and his pyramid as one built in direct succession to the pyramid of Sneferuw at Dahshur.
2-THE TOPOGRAPHY OF THE GIZA NECROPOLIS
The Giza Necropolis lies on a promontory of nummulitic limestone bounded on the south by a sandy wady which descends south of the Third Pyramid (GIII), and on the north by a large wady on which the northern face of the rock plateau abuts in several steeply terraced cliffs. This promontory was greatly altered by the quarrying and the constructions carried out in the Old Kingdom, and its original form can only be visualized with some difficulty. The general layout of the necropolis centres on the three pyramids and in particular on the first, the pyramid of Cheops (GI). The order of the kings, Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus, is certainly established and forms the basis of the chronology of the whole necropolis situated on the rock promontory. The pyramids of these kings were built in the following order:
I. The First Pyramid (GI), the pyramid of Cheops: pyramid temple (PTI), causeway (CWI) and corridor (CRI), Valley temple (WTI);
2. The Second Pyramid (GII), the pyramid of Chephren: pyramid temple(PTII), causeway (CWII) and corridor (CRII), Valley temple (WTII);
3. The Third Pyramid (GIII), the pyramid of Mycerinus: pyramid temple (PTIII), causeway (CWIII) and corridor (CRIII), Valley temple (WTIII) .
The three pyramids lie in a roughly diagonal line running from NE to SW in the order named. The Cheops pyramid occupies the primary site on the NE quarter of the promontory, and even if we knew nothing of the order of these kings this pyramid would be selected as the first which was built in the necropolis. The pyramid of Chephren is on the next most desirable point which remained after the excavation of the Cheops quarry. After the completion of the Chephren pyramid the only available forward site was that of the Mycerinus pyramid. Although the ground behind the Second Pyramid is higher and better, it would not have permitted easily the construction of a causeway and a Valley Temple. Temple, and a pyramid on that site would have been obscured by the Second Pyramid.
The fields of mastabas and other tombs are grouped about these three clearly dated royal tombs, but chiefly about the First Pyramid. West of the Cheops pyramid lies the greatest group of mastabas of the whole site, called herein the ‘Western Field’ -(NWCem). On the east the ‘Eastern Field’ — (NECem) contains fewer mastabas, but these include the tombs of the most important members of the family of Cheops. Along the north eastern face of the promontory are a large number of rock-cut tombs of Dyns. V-VI. South of the pyramid runs a line of about twelve mastabas — Cemetery G I S — (GIS). These fields associated with the pyramid of Cheops contain the majority of the private tombs in the necropolis. South-east of the Second Pyramid, a number of rock-cut tombs and mastabas are situated in the old Cheoasps-Chephren uarry as ‘Central Field’ — (CCem). And south-east of the Third Pyramid, the Mycerinus quarry has been similarly occupied by a large rock-cut tombs and a number of mastabas which extend up the northern terraces of the quarry and over the rock above — (SWCem).
THE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ROCK PROMONTORY
The remains of the original rock surface show that before Cheops built the first Giza pyramid the site was a great dome of weathered rock, nummulitic limestone consisting of beds of different quality. The greater part was hard grey stone, but towards the south was a bed of softer yellow-drab stone such as may still be seen in the modern quarry south of the Mycerinus Valley Temple — (VTIII). This dome of rock was eroded into a valley on the south, the same valley (wady) (SW) descends south of the Third Pyramid and separates the fourth-dynasty site (CemSW) from the older site in which are tombs of Dyns. II and III (FSCem). The northern side of the dome was terraced by erosion. The lowest terrace was bounded on the north by the great wady which enters the black land north of Mena House Hotel. But on the south of the hotel a minor wady descends from the top of the first or lower terrace to the level of the valley. The highest point of the upper terrace, that of the whole dome of the rock, lies about 150 metres west of Harvard Camp with an outlook northwards over the lower terrace and the great northern wady. The line of highest elevation descends very gradually, not in a straight line, to a point near the NW corner of the Second Pyramid and then NE across the site of the First Pyramid, and finally eastwards it slopes first very gently, and then in an increasingly steep curve to the valley. South of the First Pyramid the surface sloped southwards and south-eastwards to the wady south of the Third Pyramid. An approximate idea of the original mass of rock lying south of the First Pyramid and east of the Second may be formed if we take the base line of the emplacement of the First Pyramid, the level of the rock behind the Second Pyramid, a point somewhat higher than the head of the Great Sphinx, and another above the rock knoll on which stands the mastaba of Queen Khent-kauws, on the edge of the southern wady, and conceive of the old curving surface of the rock dome as passing through these points. The surface of the lower terrace on the  northern side of the dome ascends slightly from the west to the site of the mastaba of Hemyuwnuw (G 4000) and descends eastwards, merging into the upper terrace just behind the First Pyramid. Considerable faults and cracks in the bed-rock crossed the dome generally in a SE-NW direction. One larger fault visible west of the First Pyramid has resulted in a drop in the surface of the rock on its north side.
ALTERATION OF ROCK PROMONTORY BY QUARRIES
The great dome as thus reconstructed shows now considerable alterations caused by ancient quarries. Just north of the First Pyramid the edge of the rock platform can be followed roughly and appears to have been quarried back, but the scarp is now covered with a mass of masons’ debris thrown out when the pyramid enceinte was cleaned up after the construction of the First Pyramid. Following the edge of the cliff around to the east, an indeterminable amount of stone has been quarried away, and the face
of the rock scarp taken by rock-cut tombs, generally of Dyns. V-VI. Directly in front of the pyramid, from near the northern small pyramid of a queen (GI-a) to the edge of the cliff, runs a quarry which has been partly filled up with the masonry foundations of the Cheops causeway (CWI), and partly occupied by mastabas (G7810 and G7820) and the tombs of funerary priests of Dyns. V-VI. South of the First Pyramid and east of the Second, the dome has been quarried away except for the knoll from which the Great Sphinx (GS) was carved, and that which was converted into the mastaba of Queen Khent-kauws (GIV). The quarry as now excavated by Professor Selim Bey Hassan has a long irregular N-S ridge along its eastern side and rises on the west in terraces to the rock cliff in which are the tombs of Nekauwra and other members of the family of Chephren. The platform of the Second Pyramid has been quarried out to the west and north, and on the NE quarter built up with massive stones, perhaps those quarried to the west and north. North of the Chephren pyramid quarry a wall of rock (WRII) runs east and west, the southern face of which limits the old Chephren quarry. The northern face also shows quarry cuts. The quarry thus indicated extends northwards, but its northern part is concealed beneath the great wall of massive stones (GWMS) which separated the great ‘Western Field’ — (NWCem)  from the Chephren enceinte and the dam of rubbish which was piled anciently along the south side of this wall. North of the wall is another large quarry-NW Querry (NWQ) — examined by Signor Schiaparelli. Farther west the edge of the upper terrace is lined with quarry faces, and with the piles of quarry or surface debris thrown back from these cuttings.
South of the Second Pyramid, the rock surface extends southwards to an E-W line about opposite the rock-cut tomb of Minyuwen (Lepsius G 92). The face of this rock on the south is obscured by dump-heaps of debris deposited probably when the area around the Second Pyramid was cleaned up after the construction of that pyramid.
It would require the removal of an enormous mass of debris to ascertain the exact extent of the quarries around the pyramid.
South of the First Pyramid and south of the line of mastabas along the south side of the First Pyramid, the ground near the causeway of the Second Pyramid is also obscured by dump-heaps from the pyramid works.
West of the Second Pyramid is a large enclosure (LEII) containing a row of rooms like workshops or workmen’s barracks. West of the Third Pyramid is a similar enclosure (LEIII) which appears to contain only a few workshops. Immediately SE of the Third Pyramid is a quarry (SEQIII) which was undoubtedly used by Mycerinus.
The important matter for the chronology apart from the order of the pyramid-enceintes of the three kings is the order in time of the various quarries. As far as the evidence permits, the order appears to be for a part of the quarries as follows:
I. For the cores of the First Pyramid and its accessory tombs:
-the quarries around the northern and eastern edges of the main promontory (NEQI);
-the quarry on top of the promontory east of the pyramid;
-a considerable part of the quarry south of the First Pyramid;
-the quarry north of the Second Pyramid, separated from the Chephren excavation by a rock wall (RWII) and crossed by the massive N-S wall (GWMS) which bounds the Western Field on the south.
2. For the core of the Second Pyramid and its accessory cores:
-the southern part of the quarry south of the First Pyramid;
-the great rock excavation in which stands the Second Pyramid;
-and probably some smaller quarries south of the Second Pyramid and along the edge of the upper terrace of the promontory.
3. For the Third Pyramid cores:
-the quarry SE of that pyramid;
-and probably continuation of some of the Chephren quarries.
It is possible that a certain amount of stone was also taken from the rock knoll south of the Valley Temple of Mycerinus (VTIII). A good deal of stone used in the private mastabas of Dyns. V and VI was taken from older structures.
3. THE FIELDS OF TOMBS IN THE GIZA NECROPOLIS
Around and among these quarries and pyramids lie the five fields of tombs belonging to members of the family and the court of Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus. These five fields in order of their origin are as follows :
I. The Western Mastaba Field (NWCem), begun early in the reign of Cheops and continued to the end of the Old Kingdom.
2. The Eastern Field (NECem), begun late in the reign of Cheops and continued partly by mastabas and partly by rock-cut tombs to the end of the Old Kingdom.
3. The small cemetery south of the First Pyramid (Cem GIS), begun in the reign of Chephren or Mycerinus and continued into Dyn. VI:
-perhaps a prolongation of the Eastern Field.
4. The mastabas and rock-cut tombs of Central Field (CCem) in the old Cheops-Chephren quarry (CCQ-main quarry) and SE of the Chehpren pyramid.
5. The cemetery of rock-cut tombs and mastabas in the Mycerinus quarry (MQ) and on its northern edge — Mycerinus Cemetery (SECem).
a. The Western Field
The Western Field of mastabas is bounded on the east by the rubble enclosing wall  (REWI) of the enceinte  of the Cheops pyramid and on the south by a massive E-W wall (GWMS) built across the old quarry (OQ -old quarry north of the  Pyramid GII). It is situated on the lower terrace of the western part of the rock promontory. It consists of four blocks of stone mastabas or mastaba-cores arranged in ordered lines with avenues and streets, and a large number of later stone mastabas irregularly placed in the streets and avenues and in the spaces between the blocks.
The northern side of the main ridge from its highest point west of Harvard Camp (HC) is a well-marked cliff about 200 m. long, overlooking the broadest part of the lower terrace. From this point eastwards it has been altered by small quarries which, like the quarry north of the Chephren pyramid, obscure the old connexion between the main ridge and the lower terrace. Apparently the upper cliff continued eastwards, falling gently to a point near the western side of the First Pyramid. Now there appears to be sloping ground between the main ridge west of the Second Pyramid and the lower terrace itself, and later mastabas have been constructed on this slope. The highest point of the lower terrace lies a little NE of this sloping ground (site of the mastaba of Hemyuwen — G4000), from which point it slopes eastwards to the plateau on which stands the First Pyramid, northwards to the top of the lower cliff, and westwards to the southward prolongation of the great northern wady (GNW). This terrace is crossed from ESE to WNW by several faults, one of which has caused the depression of the northern part of the terrace by 1-2 m. Along the eastern edge of the field where it enters the area quarried away along the western side of the First Pyramid, the Western Field has been artificially raised by a rubble retaining (enclosing) wall (REWI) filled in behind with limestone debris.
(I) The Four Nucleus Cemeteries and G 2000
The four nucleus cemeteries on the lower terrace of the Western Field taken in numerical order are:
I. Cem. G 1200: situated on the northern part of the terrace about 100 m. NW of the tomb of Hemyuwen and 175 m. west of Cem. G 2100 — 10 stepped small-course mastabas in 3 E-W rows.2. A large isolated mastaba, G 2000, about 50 m. north of the Hemyuwen mastaba, and about halfway between Cem. G 1200 and Cem. G 2100.
3. Cem. G 2100: situated on the northern part of the terrace about 185 m. east of Cem. G 1200 and north of Cem. G 4000 — 11 stepped small-course mastabas: in 2 groups, 5 on west and 6 on east.
4. Cem. G 4000: situated directly east of the Hemyuwen mastaba, which it includes; 42 mastabas in 6 E-W rows; 5 small-stepped mastabas with solid cores, 2 massive cores faced with smallstepped masonry, 34 massive cores and I filled small-stepped core; the 3 northern rows adjoining the Hemyuwen mastaba have 8 mastabas each (8 N-S lines); the 3 southern rows show only 6 lines, as lines I and 2 were omitted because of the Schiaparelli quarry, and the eastern core in row I appears never to have been built.
5. The Cem. en Echelon: adjoining Cem. G 2100 and Cem. G 4000 on the east; 3 N-S lines of filled small-stepped cores interrupted near the middle by a great fault; 25 cores, 9 in each of the 2 western rows and 7 in the eastern row.
The mastaba cores of these four cemeteries and the isolated tomb G 2000 were obviously built on primary sites and all other mastabas were added later. The chronology of the Western Field must therefore
be based on these 89 cores, erected in blocks on primary sites.
The problems presented are :
I. The determination of the order in time of the commencement of these four blocks of cores and their relation to G 2000.
2. The order of construction of the mastabas composing each block.
3. The date of the use of the cores as finished mastabas.
The examination of these problems will be taken up in Chapter IV, but for the present purpose it is to be noted that the use of these cores as burial-places extends from the reign of Cheops into Dyn. V.
(2) The Mastabas Secondary to the Blocks of Nucleus Cores
Each mastaba in the four nucleus cemeteries became the nucleus of a small group of later tombs built in the streets north, east, and south of it, usually abutting on the nucleus mastaba. These later mastabas were used either for members of the family of the owner of the nucleus mastaba or for his ka-priests. The ka-priests were sometimes but not always members of the family of the chief person. These street cemeteries, subordinate to the nucleus mastaba, left large spaces unoccupied east, west, and north of the four cemeteries and in three large spaces:
(I) between Cem. G 1200 and G 2000;
(2) between G 2000 and Cem. G 2100;
(3) the space between the western end of G 4000 and the two spaces already mentioned. All these spaces among and around the four original cemeteries appear to
be occupied with one great cemetery which had grown around various tombs on independent sites and by interspersion, mainly during Dyns. V and VI.
The chronology of this secondary cemetery requires a very careful analysis based on an examination of the groups of tombs and their individual members. As an example of the problem I mention here two of these groups of the secondary cemetery. In the NE corner of the Western Field stands the Senezeni-ib complex, built around the large mastaba of Senezem-ib = Yenty and comprising the mastabas of three generations of his descendants. Against the eastern face of the complex is a row of later small mastabas obviously belonging to this family group. The other notable group lies SW of
the Hemyuwen mastaba, just west of the Schiaparelli quarry. It began with the tomb of Shepseskafankh and contains the mastabas of his son and son-in-law and his grandson. This group is the centre of a large number of small mastabas which appear to be related to it. The general problem is to fix the mastabas on independent sites and work out the relation to them of the surrounding mastabas. The order of the mastabas on independent sites is to be determined partly from the relative positions and
partly from the datable material presented by the groups centred on them. The details of this analysis must be reserved for a special chapter.
(3) Ancient Pillaging, Sanding-up of the Cemetery, and Intrusive Burials
I have already remarked that some of the later mastabas erected in the Western Field were built of stone taken from earlier mastabas. A few of the mastabas denuded by the theft of stone have beenoverbuilt by other mastabas now less denuded. I mention in particular G 1024. The theft of stone for building, including the burning for lime, has continued down to the beginning of the present century, but after the sanding-up of the cemetery the stone removed was almost exclusively the fine white limestone of casings and chapels.
The pillage of the burial-chambers began probably soon after the burial. A systematic and open plundering was carried out when the streets were only slightly encumbered with drift sand. The street beside every large mastaba, usually at the back behind the chief burial-pit, had a sloping dump where the filling of the pit had been thrown out by the pillagers, and this dump usually rested on a comparatively slight layer of drift sand (50 to 100 cm.). These pillagers either knew or more probably were able to mark down by surface signs every large pit. Only two or three of the larger burial-chambers have escaped plundering, but left untouched were hundreds of small pits which, at that time, must have been visible, probably because it was known from experience that such shafts contained nothing of value.
The sand blows into the cemetery from SW and west, rarely from the north, but once in the cemetery it is driven southwards by the frequent north winds. Sand tends to blow in and out again, unless it is moving in dunes, and there are no dunes in the neighbourhood of the necropolis. But if there are pockets or obstructions in its path, the ordinary wind-blown sand tends to collect or bank up. In the Western Field the sanding-up appears to have made serious progress soon after the Old Kingdom. At that time the crowding of the cemetery had left only narrow passages between the mastabas, and many of these passages had been blocked by small late tombs, and by the debris thrown out by the pillagers from the burial-shafts. In addition the whole southern side of the cemetery was blocked by the great massive wall which bounded the cemetery on that side, by the rubble construction west of the Second Pyramid, and by the partially quarried cliff westward of these constructions. On the east the outlet of the sand was partially stopped by the Great Pyramid and its rubble enclosing wall. It is to be noted that the eastern edge of the cemetery north of the pyramid was almost free of sand. I judge that the wind-blown sand began invading the cemetery from the west. As the obstructions of street after street were covered, free passage was opened between the large mastabas and the sand blown through these passages filled up the streets and the pockets eastwards up to the eastern edge of the cemetery. When we began the excavation of the cemetery it was so completely sanded up that only the tops of the large mastabas were showing. About a metre under the present surface we came on a number of offering-places built on sand which covered burials intruded in the old superstructures. The usual procedure in making these intrusions was to clear the sand from the roof of an old offering-room, to remove one or two roofing slabs, to build a long, narrow burial-chamber of brick or stone, roofed with the stone slabs, and to construct a shaft usually of stone in the end of the room. If necessary the shaft was carried up stone-lined to the surface of the time in question. The offering-place was roughly constructed either over the shaft or directly east of it. The tombs of the secondary cemetery appear to have presented the best opportunities for this type of intrusion, and this cemetery, particularly in the northern parts, was seriously encumbered by these intrusions. The intrusive burials of this type were obviously later than Dyn. VI, but appeared to be generally earlier than Dyn. XII.
A second series of intrusions took place in the Ptolemaic-Roman period, contemporary with those of similar date in other parts of the necropolis. These, however, were not extensive, and consisted in the utilization of a few large chapels as communal burial-places.
Finally it is to be noted that at some period, probably Dyn. VI, the chapel of a mastaba near the SW corner of the Great Pyramid was used as a sort of workshop for the manufacture of alabaster model vessels. In this room large fragments and perhaps whole royal statues were broken into small pieces, some of which were scattered over the adjoining ground to a distance of nearly 100 m.
b. The Eastern Field : Cemetery G7000
East of the Cheops pyramid the main ridge of the rock promontory runs nearly due east to the N-S cliff (altered by quarrying), which overlooked the valley. Between the line of highest level in this ridge and the northern cliff, a distance of about 100 m., the rock surface slopes slightly downwards. On the south of the ridge the ground slopes gently again for about 100 m. and then with increasing rapidity to the quarry about the Sphinx.
In the northern side of the promontory near the top of the northward slope a long E-W quarry has been excavated, beginning about 30 m. from the entrance of the Pyramid Temple. The western end of this quarry has been filled in with masonry, and a long causeway constructed from the eastern edge of the masonry through the quarry to carry the long corridor which led from the pyramid to the Valley Temple (WTI): this causeway does not run due east but about 15 degrees north of east. With a few exceptions the tombs are all situated south of this causeway.
Cem. G 7000, similar to the Western Field, consists of a nucleus cemetery, a secondary cemetery including many rock-cut tombs, and an intrusive cemetery of the Saite, Ptolemaic, and Roman periods.
(I) The Nucleus Cemetery of the Eastern Field
The nucleus cemetery of the Eastern Field is more coherent than that of the Western Field. It begins on the west with three small pyramids built for the queens of Cheops. The northernmost (GIa) stands in the angle between the entrance hall and the main part of the Pyramid Temple, on the top of the southward slope of the promontory.
The second pyramid (GIb), alined with it, stands on lower ground immediately to the south. The third pyramid (GIc), set back about 2 m. to the west, lies still lower down where the ground begins to slope more rapidly southwards.
In front of The third pyramid (GIc) due the West stands the little additional pyramid (GId).
In front of these three pyramids stand eight very large twin-mastabas arranged in two E-W rows, in four N-S lines. The ground under these eight mastabas slopes gently eastwards, but southwards after the first hundred metres it falls more steeply and in particular in the SE direction. These eight twin-mastabas, situated on the most desirable sites after the erecting of the small pyramids, form the original nucleus cemetery.
The original nucleus cemetery was increased in the first place by the addition of five large mastabas with which is to be associated a sixth mastaba south of the third small pyramid.
Directly east of the northern row of twin-mastabas, and alined with their northern end, stands the great mastaba of Ankh-haf, G7510, which covers the outlook of the northern row and a fourth of the southern row.
South of this great mastaba stand two of more modest size, one in front of the other and reckoned as beginning lines 5 and 6 of the cemetery. South of lines (No. 3) and (No. 4), one further mastaba was added to each of these two rows, and, as I have said, a sixth was built south of the third small pyramid.
This growing nucleus cemetery was increased in the second place by the addition of eight mastabas of quite a different type. Two were built, one in front of the other, north of the great mastaba G7510 — mastabas G7810 and G7820. One each was added on the south of lines (No. 1) and (No. 6), and a new line (No. 7) was added by two mastabas east of line (No. 6) — mastabas G7750 and G7760. Two other mastabas were added west of that which is south of the third small pyramid.
In continuation of this second addition to the nucleus cemetery of the Eastern Field, one mastaba G7560 was added at the southern end of line (No. 5). This mastaba, of the same type as the eight mastabasof the second addition, had a chapel of white limestone. At the southern end of line (No. 6), practically contemporaneous with G 7560, was added G7670 and then G7690. These were the last mastabas built on independent sites which continued the unified plan of the nucleus cemetery of the Eastern Field.
(2) The Secondary Cemetery of the Eastern Field
The secondary cemetery of the Eastern Field consists as in the west of tombs of descendants and ka-priests abutting on the large tombs of the nucleus cemetery and of complexes of tombs constructed in the open spaces, especially to the south and east. Some of the earliest mastabas of this secondary cemetery continue irregularly to the south as prolongations of rows 5 and 6. These tombs on the promontory itself present much the same problem as in the Western Field.
The Eastern Field contained also a large number of rock-cut tombs in the eastern cliff, and these are much more difficult to deal with.
(3) Ancient Pillaging, Sanding-up of the Cemetery, and Intrusive Burials
The evidence of ancient and modern pillaging was found everywhere. The only important burialchamber which had escaped was that of the secret tomb of the mother of Cheops (G7000X), which escaped because it had no superstructure. Many small unimportant tombs were found with their burialchambers intact, as in the Western Field. The pyramids and mastabas of this field had suffered much greater destruction than the mastabas of the Western Field. The greater part of the casing of the second small pyramid had been removed to within 2 m. of the base before the Ptolemaic period, and several of the mastabas had also lost part, at least, of their fine white casing in or before that period. The small mastabas of nummulitic limestone in the eastern part of the field were found usually denuded almost to the ground by the theft of stone for building purposes, a destruction which has gone on down to the beginning of this century.
The sanding-up of the cemetery exposed to the SW wind proceeded rapidly. The causeway and the great mastaba G 7510 hemmed in the deposit of sand on the north and east. East of this great mastaba the depth of sand was infinitesimal.
In the Saite-Ptolemaic period, when the first ascertained intrusions took place, the streets were filled in nearly to the tops of the mastabas, but the street east of the three small pyramids had been cleared out, so that the floor of the Ptolemaic period practically rested on the old IVth Dyn. floor.
The clearing of the street east of the small pyramids was probably begun in front of the southernmost of these pyramids. There, in the XXIst Dyn., the funerary chapel of that pyramid was enlarged into a small temple dedicated to Isis, Mistress of the Pyramids. In the Saite period this temple of Isis was enlarged eastward to the eastern face of the great twin-mastaba of Khufuw-haf which lies in front of it, and built in a cut in the mastaba itself. At the same time three private funerary chapels were built within the precincts of the temple and a number of deep burial-shafts which were used as family burial-places. The street north of the temple was used for circular granaries of c.b.
From the Isis temple private tombs of mud-brick were constructed all over the Eastern Field. The burial-shafts of these c.b. mastabas descended either in old shafts of Dyn. IV or through the accumulated debris into the rock below. The chambers of the pyramids themselves were also cleared out and used forcommunal burial-places.
c. The Cemetery G I S
South of the Cheops pyramid the rock surface slopes gently southwards to the northern edge of the Cheops quarry, now covered with refuse. Just outside the rubble enclosure wall of the First Pyramid stands an E-W row of massive cores, ten in number, approximately alined.
The row actually falls into two groups with a space between. On the west there are four cores (Junker’s No. 1, an unfinished or destroyed core, No. 2, and No. 3). On the east there are six cores, Junker’s Nos. 5-10. No. IO lies behind pyramid G I-c, and the extension of its c.b. exterior chapel is built in the space south of that small pyramid. This mastaba has not yet been excavated because its street lies under the road used by tourists to visit the Sphinx.
This cemetery, small as it is, also has a few secondary mastabas either abutting the nucleus mastabas or on independent sites (see particularly Junker’s Nos. 4 and 11).|
d. The Quarry Cemetery West and South-east of the Second Pyramid
West of the Second Pyramid in the face of the quarry scarp which surrounds the Second Pyramid on the west and north there are four rock-cut tombs apparently all unfinished.
On the east, south of the Chephren causeway, the terraces of the old quarry are occupied by a number of rock-cut tombs of members of the family of Chephren and persons of later date, and by a number of mastabas and mastaba-complexes. This cemetery terminates on the south at the edge of the southern wady where the mastaba of Queen Khent-kauws of Dyn. V (GIV) stands built over and around an old block of stone left by the quarrymen.
East of the monument and east of the Valley Temple of Mycerinus (WT3) lies a town of c.b. houses (KKT), probably a pyramid city. This area appears to extend across the mouth of the southern wady and to be bounded on the south by a stone wall (WC-wall of the Crow) of massive blocks. In this cemetery still under excavation there is no evidence of any nucleus of tombs following a unified plan. Its place is taken, however, by a number of rock-cut tombs which can be identified with queens and children of Chephren. The rest of the tombs must be reckoned as belonging to the secondary cemetery of Dyns. V-VI.
The quarry cemetery of Chephren lying in a great hollow was filled with blown sand probably soon after Dyn. VI. Its large burial-chambers were found plundered, with feu- exceptions. The destruction caused by the removal of stone is perhaps about on an equality with that in the Western Field.
North-east of the Great Sphinx, Selim Bey Hassan has excavated a c.b. temple of Harmachis containing stelae of a long succession of kings extending from Amenophis II to the end of Dyn. XIX. This temple marks the revival of a community near the pyramids and a renewal of the use of the necropolis as a place for burials. This revival was based on the identification of the Chephren Sphinx as the god Harmachis (Horus on the Horizon) which must have taken place in or soon before the reign of Amenophis II (seventh king of Dyn. XVIII).
His son Thothmes IV claims to have cleared away the sand around the Sphinx and to have originated the chapel between the paws of the Sphinx.
Farther away to the SE, in Dyn. XIX, Kha-em-wase, son of Ramses II, built another c.b. temple, probably also dedicated to Harmachis but not yet excavated. Few of the tombs of the community created by these temples to Harmachis (the Great Sphinx) have been identified.
In Dyn. XXI the community was increased by the reconstruction of the Pyramid Temple of Queen Henutsen (Pyr. G Ic) into a temple of Isis, Mistress of the Pyramids (Henutsen). The tombs of this community from the Saite period to late in Roman times are identified with the intrusive burials of that time found all over the eastern part of the necropolis and occasionally in the part west of the First Pyramid.
The quarry cemetery and the adjoining area north of the Chephren causeway was also used for burials in the Saite, Ptolemaic, and Roman periods. North of the causeway there is an enormous square pit of the Ptolemaic period and several others in the same region.
The older tombs south of the causeway were frequently used for communal burial-places, as in the Eastern Field.
e. The Mycerinus Cemetery
South of the Third Pyramid stand the three small pyramids of his queens in an E-W row. Apart from these small pyramids, there is no nucleus cemetery like those of the Eastern and Western Fields.
In the quarry of this pyramid lies, however, a cemetery resembling in some degree the Chephren quarry cemetery. This consists of one large rock-cut tomb with a mastaba on the cliff above it, and small mastabas built on the terraces of the quarry along its northern side and on the western side north of the rock-cut tomb. The mastabas are all of Dyn. V or later, and after reaching the top of the quarry this small field of mastabas was continued over the adjacent rock above the quarry on the north.
The quarry itself, like the Chephren quarry, was early filled with drift sand. The mastabas on its northern edge were never entirely hidden, although the sand filled the passages between them. No fine white limestone was used in the mastabas, and no serious destruction by the removal of stone has taken place. The mastabas on the ground above and some of the others have suffered by decay. The burial-chambers had generally been broken open. Even the burial-place inside the great rock-cut tomb had been thoroughly cleared out.