Бабиков Ю.А.
Эвакуационная шахта (обслуживающая, шахта-колодец, Well Shaft, Escape Shaft, Service Shaft).

Из «ВЕЛИКАЯ ПИРАМИДА – ВСПОМОГАТЕЛЬНОЕ ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЕ СООРУЖЕНИЕ».
Эта, так называемая шахта-колодец, к сожалению недоступная для туристов, но к счастью, подробно описанная в документах. Шахта-колодец, названная так арабами, в действительности представляет собой ряд вертикальных шахт, соединяющих верхнюю часть пирамиды с нижней. Шахта состоит из семи сегментов: четырех длинных «отделанных», одной загадочной неотделанной, и двух коротких шахт, которые выводят, соответственно в нисходящий проход и в Большую галерею. Было неопровержимо доказано, что прямые участи шахты-колодца являются составной частью первоначального проекта пирамиды. Таким образом, единственной непонятной частью системы шахт является этот неотделанный туннель, происхождение которого не поддается обычным объяснениям. И он, этот туннель, полностью соответствует описанию в древнем сказании «входа, который они пророют».

The ‘Well Shaft’ and ‘Grotto’
www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk

The ‘Well shaft’ is a tunnel that runs down into the bedrock for over 200 feet beneath the great pyramid, connecting the upper parts with the lower subterranean chamber. It has been proposed to have been originally cut for several purposes: To provide air for the builders, to provide access for repairs to the kings chambers, or as an escape route for the workmen who lowered the granite plugs into place or finally, for tomb robbers. All of these theories however, have objections.

The Well-shaft was cut through the natural bedrock beneath the Grotto. As the pyramid was built over it, the Grotto was blocked covered over. A small section of lined tunnel was left concealed into the masonry at the top end, then covered over with a blocking stone. The two sections of the tunnel were connected at a later date by someone who cut roughly through the masonry of the pyramid, gaining access to the hidden tunnel and upper parts.

The Great pyramid was built with several tunnels and chambers in it, most of which were designed to remain hidden. Whilst we assume that the major tunnels have been found, rumours still abound that other cavities and tunnels exist to be discovered within the structure. Of the numerous reports and explorations of the pyramid, one fact remains true: The well-shaft was accurately cut  (28″ x 28″) through hundreds of metres of bedrock and sealed off at the top as the pyramid was built over it, however, the top tunnel section which was hidden into the masonry was left there for a reason, and whoever it was that breached the upper section of the the well-shaft were well aware of its location, and were undoubtedly the first people to gain access to the upper parts of the pyramid since its construction.

 

Although generally considered a minor feature of the Great pyramid, the well-shaft potentially holds one of the key secrets of the Giza complex, albeit one for which we may no longer be able to find an answer today. The true significance of the incorporation of this natural feature into the design of the Great pyramid is realised by several geometric facts which show that the builders not only built the tunnel in accordance to a known plan, but that the ‘Grotto’ within it, may have been the inspiration for the great pyramid itself. It is noted for example, that the upper entrance of the tunnel is at the exact junction of the change in architecture and style of masonry in the Ascending corridor and Grand Gallery (from tunnel to vaulted chamber), simultaneously marking the level and start of the tunnel leading to the ‘Queens chamber’. In addition, the ‘grotto’ within the well-shaft is located at the same level as the granite plugs in the ascending passage, and perhaps most importantly — lies on the central north/south axis of the pyramid itself.

 

The seemingly insignificant, natural chamber in the Well-shaft known as the ‘Grotto’ lies beneath the bedrock of Giza, but is several metres above the natural level of the plateau as it sits within a raised part of the limestone (25ft higher), and one over which the whole pyramid was later constructed. The masonry around the mouth of the chamber clearly suggest that the Great pyramid was built directly over what would have then been a natural high point on the central complex, with the opening to a natural underground cavern at its top. It is noticeable that a natural fissure runs from the Grotto deep into the bedrock (see image above). The same fissure was closed off below as the descending passage was cut though it. Perhaps relevant is the statement by Lepre (10), who  noted that inside the grotto:

 

‘The ceiling is unusually damp to the point where there is actually a perceptible coating — like a light frost — over the pebbles themselves. This unusual composition naturally tempts one to speculate about the existence of a nearby water source’.

The ‘Well-shaft’.

 

In the 1830’s Captain G. B. Caviglia cleared the descending passage of debris, exposing the ‘pit’ for the first time since the Pyramid had first been opened by Al Mamun. At the same time, Caviglia also discovered and opened the ‘well-shaft’. Its upper opening was concealed at the point where the horizontal passage to the Queens Chamber branches off. Clearing the debris from the well-shaft is said to have improved the otherwise stifling air quality in the Pit and Descending Passage.

 

Is it possible to determine whether the well was built before the pyramid was constructed, or after..

 

Click here for larger imageThe Well-shaft lies precisely on an E-W plane parallel to the pyramids passages and chambers. It can be separated into seven sections, with the upper three sections passing through 60 ft of limestone masonry and the lower segments being tunnelled through another 150ft of natural rock. With the exception of section C which was tunnelled through the masonry in a rough and irregular manner, and section G, two of whose squarish sides were left rough and not quite horizontal; all the other sections are straight, precise, carefully finished, and uniformly angled throughout their lengths. The Edgar brothers showed conclusively that the upper short horizontal passage, as well as the vertical section were part of the original construction.  The two vertical sections at the top are of equal length). They also found that the lower vertical section was built with masonry blocks as it passed through the ‘Grotto’ in the bedrock. It could only have been so constructed when the rock face was still exposed, before the grotto was covered with the masonry of the pyramid.

 

The geometry of the shaft, the fact that the top part of the tunnel was incorporated into the design and the bottom parts cut neatly and correctly except for the last section, and that the upper section was cut through solid masonry all support the idea that the well-shaft was built (but not necessarily completed), as the pyramid was constructed.

 

The missing blocking stones, chisel marks around the entrance, and the fact that a part of the well-shaft was roughly cut through existing masonry has led many to the reasonable conclusion that the well-shaft was breached at some time in the past in order to access the interior of the pyramid after construction. The next question then is how was it accessed?
Extract from the Edgar Brothers (Vol II) —  The mouth of the well is formed by a portion of the ramp on the west side having been broken away: and the appearance of the masonry surrounding this Well-mouth suggests the thought of the once covering ramp-stone having been violently burst out from underneath…In addition to the breaking of the ramp-stone at the head of the well-shaft, a portion of the lower end of the floor of the Grand Gallery appears to have been forcibly removed.

 

This observation leaves the reader with the impression that the well-shaft was cut through from the bottom up. However, the following quote creates a different picture.

 

‘There is incontrovertible evidence that the well Shaft is an original feature that was dug from the top down…a close examination of the chisel marks on the topside of the blocks that surround the upper entranced to the shaft reveals that it was chiselled out from above’.  (10)

 

We are left with the following confusing possibility: That the shaft was cut surreptitiously after the pyramid was finished by someone who shared or had been passed on the knowledge of its whereabouts. The suggestion is not a new one. In fact, the only thing that stands in its way is the chisel marks at the upper entry which have been established to have been cut from the top. But what if the shaft was cut from the bottom, then opened out from the top?

 

Extract from Great Pyramid Passages: Vol I — ‘We have taken a number of photographs and careful measurements of the lower end of the Well, where it enters at the west wall of the Descending Passage — See Plate X. The opening in the wall is rather broken and rough around the edges, although the sides are, in a general way, vertical and square with the top. Professor Flinders Petrie believes that the opening was at one time concealed by a stone’ and that ‘Al Mamoun’s workmen made their way down the Well shaft from its upper end in the Grand Gallery, and forced the concealing block of stone from its position at the lower end’.   (14)

 

Comments — It feels significant that the opening of the well-shaft is on the same level as the ‘Queens’ passage and chamber. That it was blocked (built over), for a section towards the top end during construction, but not completely to the top, is also significant. There must have been a good reason for concealing it and re-entering it. Yet we can assume that it was not meant to be found easily yet probably intended for ‘reasonably easy access’ at a later date.

 

Whoever completed the tunnelling had a plan from which to work by in order to make the final connection and that whoever cut it was privy to that information.  ‘It is also possible that the short passage that connects the two sets of chambers in the Bent pyramid, which is clearly not part of the original design, was also tunnelled by robbers who knew the layout’.   (10)

 

Question: It was reported that the Well-shaft was partially filled with debris when it was found so how did the person who filled it get out?. In addition we need to understand where the debris originated and what was the purpose of filling it for that matter. In fact, it is worth asking if it was ever re-sealed at the bottom end.?

 

Pochan   (16) manages to ‘clear away’ the issue of rubble at the bottom of the tunnel. He quotes Coutelle, from the Napoleonic expedition who recorded the following:
‘While descending, I had stopped at a sort of grotto found above the steep part of the well; that is, in the second vertical part. This excavation had been made by removing pebbles, bits of which still remained stuck to the arch; there were more underfoot. I rested there (and) compared the pebbles I was carrying with these pebbles and ascertained that     the pebbles at the bottom of the well derived from the excavation of this grotto’.

 

The logic of the finding is sufficient to conclude that it is probably right. It does, however, mean that whoever displaced the pebbles had no intention of exiting the building via the bottom of the well-shaft.

 The Grotto.
It has been reasonably suggested that the ‘Grotto’ may have been an original landscape feature, and that the pyramid might have even been built over it. However, it is the ‘Queens’ chamber that occupies the central position of the pyramid, and not the grotto (although its upper entrance is on the same level).

 

The block-work from the upper entrance down to the grotto has been shown to have been laid as the pyramid rose up which points to the idea that in some way, the area down to the grotto was an original feature. (The same is true of the tunnelling below the grotto. It is clean and well worked). The only rough cut passage is above the grotto, cutting through the existing masonry until it meets the prepared passage above it.
Lepre (10), noted that inside the grotto: ‘The ceiling is unusually damp to the point where there is actually a perceptible coating — like a light frost — over the pebbles themselves. This unusual composition naturally tempts one to speculate about the existence of a nearby water source’.

 

It has been suggested that the grotto was built to allow the first intruders room to work. This suggestion seems reasonable as in order to cut through the blocks above, there would need to be a well placed workspace. We can assume that the ‘Grotto’ had been excavated in the past (from the ‘rubble and sand’ found in the tunnel below, which is similar in composition to that found in the grotto).  The only problem with this theory is the lack of oxygen which again suggests that the top part of the well-shaft was opened from above and not below.

Братья Эдгар
Эвакуационная шахта (обслуживающая, шахта-колодец, Well Shaft, Escape Shaft, Service Shaft)
Из Pyramides d’Égypte : arrêt sur images, avec les frères John et Morton Edgar — II

Edgar 147«The Well-mouth in the north-west corner of the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, from the east; showing the horizontal joint between the upper and lower portions of the square-cut-off Ramp to the south (left) ; the fragmentary remains of the missing Ramp-stone in the north (right) corner ; and the upper end of the First Ascending Passage to the right ; also part of the floor of the Horizontal Passage to the Queen’s Chamber in the foreground.»
«The Well-mouth in the north-west corner of the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, from the east; showing the horizontal joint between the upper and lower portions of the square-cut-off Ramp to the south (left) ; the fragmentary remains of the missing Ramp-stone in the north (right) corner ; and the upper end of the First Ascending Passage to the right ; also part of the floor of the Horizontal Passage to the Queen’s Chamber in the foreground.»
«We photographed the small doorway of the Grotto from the inside, getting Judah to sit on the sandy floor on the west side with his head almost touching the roof.Edgar 151
Wedged in at the east edge of the deep hollow in the floor of the Grotto is a large granite stone, which, judging by its broken appearance, is a fragment of a larger block. It has two worked surfaces at right angles to each other, and, most wonderful of all, parts of two large holes drilled through it. The north-east upper corner of this stone may be seen at the lower left-hand corner of our photograph of the Grotto.»
Wedged in at the east edge of the deep hollow in the floor of the Grotto is a large granite stone, which, judging by its broken appearance, is a fragment of a larger block. It has two worked surfaces at right angles to each other, and, most wonderful of all, parts of two large holes drilled through it. The north-east upper corner of this stone may be seen at the lower left-hand corner of our photograph of the Grotto.»
«In one of our photographs of the lower end of the Well, [a] larger stone may be seen lying further up the passage ; and part of one of the worked surfaces, and even the upper ends of the drill-holes may be discerned.Edg3 Judah is seen reclining on the floor of the Descending Passage above the stone, supporting his head on the board which Mr. Covington had placed across the passage to keep back the debris when he was clearing away the rubbish below that point. This board, of course, is no longer required, as the entire length of the passage is now clear.»
«In one of our photographs of the lower end of the Well, [a] larger stone may be seen lying further up the passage ; and part of one of the worked surfaces, and even the upper ends of the drill-holes may be discerned.
«In one of our photographs of the lower end of the Well, [a] larger stone may be seen lying further up the passage ; and part of one of the worked surfaces, and even the upper ends of the drill-holes may be discerned.