THE BURIAL-SHAFTS OF FINISHED MASTABAS OF THE NUCLEUS CEMETERIES
c. Distribution of the Shaft Types in the Nucleus Cemeteries
(1) The Shafts in the Fifteen Initial Mastabas of the Nucleus Cemeteries
The distribution of the shaft types through the mastabas marked as the fifteen initial cores in the Western Field is as follows:
Type I:
With entry at roof-level:

(I) G 4160: type I br; area, 12.16 sq. m.; 32.59 cu. m.
(2) G 4150: type I ar; area, 10.23 sq. m.; 25.06 cu. m.
(3) G 4260: type I ar; area, 10.87 sq. m.; 30.11 cu. m.
(4) G 4250: type I ar; area, 10.46 sq. m.; 25.52 cu. m.
Total with high entry of type 1, 4 shafts.
With entry low down in the wall of chamber:
(1) G 4000 N: type 1 blx; 23.32 sq. m.; 89.78 cu. m.
(2) G 2100 A: type I cm; area, 12.07 sq. m.; 34.4 cu. m.
South shaft intended to be of the same types but left unfinished in the form of type 3 brx.
With other shafts, of which B is of type 3 bf (area, 12.91 sq. m.), and C is of type 3 cr
(area, 9.0 sq. m.).
(3) G 2120: type 1 al; area, 11.16 sq. m.; 30.13 cu. m.
(4) G 2130: type I cl; area, 9.61 sq. m.; 21.62 cu. m.
(5) G 1201: type 1 al; area, 13.6 sq. m.; 46.51 cu. m.
(6) G 1203: type 1 el; area, 9.3 sq. m.; 30.69 cu. m.
(7) G 1205: type 1 el; area, 8.99 sq. m.; 21.47 cu. m.
(8) G 1225: type I bl; area, 8.96 sq. m.; 24.19 cu. m.
(9) G 1223: type 1 bms; area, 15.35 sq. m.; 43.59 cu. m.
(IO) G 2210: type I bl; area, 16.5 sq. m.; 54.45 cu. m.
Total with low entry, IO shafts.
Total number of shafts of type I among the 15 initial mastabas, 14. Of these 14 shafts 4 have entry at roof-level, all in Cem. G 4000. Ten have a low entry with a step down from floor of passage to floor of chamber, I in Cem. G 4000, 4 in Cem. G 2100, and 5 in Cem. G 1200.
Two of the passages are sloping, G 4000 N and G 1223 A, while all the rest (12 shafts) have horizontal passages. All 14 chambers are lined and all but I paved with fine white limestone. It is to be noted that the chambers of the block of 4 normal mastabas in Cem. G 4000 have a general resemblance and differ in their high entry from the chambers of Cem. G 1200 and G 2100. In size, the largest chamber is in G 4000 N (89-78 cu. m.). The chambers in order of cubic capacity are:
(I) G 4000 N: type 1 blx; area, 23.32 sq. m.; 89.78 cu. m.
(2) G 2210: type 1 bf; area, 16.5 sq. m.; 54.45 cu. m.
(3) G 1201: type 1 al; area, 13.6 sq. m.; 46.51 cu. m.
(4) G 2100 A: type I cm; area, 12.07 sq. m.; 34.4 cu. m.
(5) G4160: type I br; area, 12.16 sq. ni.; 32.59 cu. m.
(6) G 1203: type 1 el; area, 9.3 sq. m.; 30.69 cu. m.
(7) G 2120: type 1 al; area, 11.16 sq. m.; 30.13 cu. m.
(8) G 4260: type I ar; area, 10.87 sq. m.; 30.11 cu. m.
(c) The following nine mastabas, row 4, lines 1-6, and line 7 (rows 4-6) :
Core type   Slab-stelae   Shaft type  Area sq. m.  Capacity cu. m.     Remarks
(14) G 4140 . . III i princess 2 brx (ramp) 16.45 46.88 lined and paved
(15) G 4240 . . IVi .. 2 bm (stair) 20.01 53.42 unlined
(16) G 4340 . . IV i no name 2 cr (ramp) 10.98 28.57 lined, not paved
(17) G 4440 . . IVi .. 2 brx (ramp) 17.62 47.75 unlined
(18) G 4540 . . IVi .. 2 ar (stair) 9.84 27.55 lined, not paved
(19) G 4640 . . IVi .. 2 br (stair) 9.22 23.6 lined, not paved
(20) G 4740 . IVi .. 2 cr (stair) 16.66 42.64 unlined
(21) G 4750 . . IVi .. 2 br (stair) 21.65 583unlined coffin-
(22) G 4760 . . IV i name lost 2 cr (stair) 16.4 50.84 unlined
(d) The nine mastabas of row 3 and line 8.
The cores of row 3 (lines 3-8) were by position in immediate succession to the twenty-two mastabas already listed above. Their chambers present a decided degeneration of the earlier mastabas in this cemetery, as follows :
(23) G 4330 . . IVi .. 3 bl 7.95 18.28
(24) G 4430 . . IVi .. 5 a (2) 3.64 5.82
(26) G 4630 . . IVi .. 3 am 12.51 26.64
(27) G 4730 . . IVi .. 7 x .. .. unused shaft
(25) G 4530 . . IVi .. 4 a (2) 3.12 5.55
(28) G 4830 . . IVi .. 6 b (2) 2.52 2.39
(29) G 4840 . . IVi .. 4 b (2) 9’44 28.32
(30) G 4850 . . IVi .. 4 a (2) 2.48 2.6
(31) G 4860 . . II a name lost 4 a (2) W 7.16 13.58 north shaft 6 b (4) 2.86 .. south shaft
(e) The mastabas of row 2.
As I reconstruct the history of this cemetery, row 2 was added at this point.
(32) G 4320 . IVi .. 6 a (2) 1.6 1.78 upper chamber.. 6 a (2) 1.6 1.6 lower chamber
(34) G 4520 . . IVi .. 6 d 0.11 0.09 upper chamber 5 b (1) 4.65 7.44 middle chamber 5 a (1) 6.21 8.69 lower chamber
(33) G 4420 . . IVi .. 5 b (2) 2.2 2.75
(35) G 4620 . IVi .. 4 b (1) 8.25 14.33
(36) G 4720 . . IVi .. 4 b (1) 4.0 6.2
(37) G 4820 . . IVi .. 6 b (irregular) 2.94 3.82
Row I appears to be the last and to have only five mastabas. Of these the second, G 4410, was reconstructed later and G 5810 was never built.
(38) G 4310 . . IVi .. 6 b (1) 1.9 1.99 upper chamber 6 b (2) 1.84 1.84 lower chamber;
(39) G 4410 . IVi .. 4 b (1) 10.65 20.76;
(40) G 4510 . . IVi .. 6 b (1) 4.8 6.96;
(42) G 4710 . . IVi .. 4 a (2) x 11.16 17.85 sole.
The general chronological order of these forty-two shafts is quite clear. The first five were among the earliest cores built in the reign of Cheops and were probably all finished and used in that reign or soon after. The next shaft the date of which is fixed approximately is No. 24 (G 4430), the burial in which was made in the reign of Chephren. The chamber was of type 5 a (2). The next chamber which can be dated is No. 34 (G 4520), in which the chief burial was dated to the reign of Weserkaf. The shaft in No. 39 (G 4410) had a burial dated also to the reign of Weserkaf. The shaft types in this cemetery show clearly that the earliest form of chamber was type I, always with lined walls and pavement. Type I is presented by the five initial mastabas and the eight succeeding mastabas of rows 5 and 6 in lines 3-7, with one exception. The exception is No. 13, the last mastaba in row 5 (G 4650), which, like the others in form, remained unlined (unfinished). Four of the five initial mastabas have the opening at roof-level. The first two chambers in row 6 and the four in row 5 have the opening in the middle of the wall, while the third and fourth (Nos. 8 and 9) in row 6 have the opening low down in the chamber wall. It is to be noted that G 4000 also had the entry low down.
The position of the opening varied at all times in Dyn. IV. Yet it is obvious that the first five chambers with high opening were constructed by the same craftsmen, and the workmanship of the succeeding eight chambers indicated that the whole thirteen may have been by the same group with only a few changes in the personality of individual members.
The workmanship of the next nine mastabas is also very similar to that of the first thirteen, but a new and distinctive feature was introduced which I designate as type 2, the ramp or stair inside the chamber leading from the floor of the passage to the floor of the chamber. All the mastabas in row 4, from G 4140 to G 4740, and the two northern mastabas in line 7 (G 4750 and 4760) are of type 2.
These mastabas form a line surrounding the thirteen on the south and the east, and apparently constructed in order from west to east and from there to the north. No other example occurs in the whole Western Field except in the great isolated mastaba G 2000. The group of chambers is obviously later than those of type I in Cem. G 4000. They may have been made by the same gang as made the others, but present a development of the forms which they were using. Type 2 was also a lined chamber, but five examples (G 4240, G 4440, G 4740, G 4750, and G 4760) were left unlined, although designed for linings as shown by red construction lines.
The twenty-two mastabas containing the chambers of types I and 2, of which sixteen are lined chambers, form a solid block in Cem. G 4000. Their chambers were certainly the first to be used for burials in this cemetery. The size and the quality of the chambers make it extremely probable that all were constructed in the reign of Cheops. This probability is increased by the fact that after the construction of the eight twin-mastabas of the Eastern Field, the favourite sites for members of the royal family were east of the First Pyramid in the reign of Chephren and east of the Second Pyramid in the reign of Mycerinus. After the use of the burial-places in the block of twenty-two, the next mastabas to be used were probably in row 3 and line 8, but the chambers vary greatly in type and size so that the order in which the old 2-m. shafts were provided with burial-chambers is difficult to determine. The nine shafts presented by row 3 (G 4330-4830, 4840-4860) have chambers of the following types :
2 of type 3: G 4330 and 4630.
4 of type 4: G 4530, 4840, 4850, and 4860.
I of type 5: G 4430.
I of type 6: G 4830 (also south chamber in 4860).
I unused shaft of type 7 x: G 4730.
The chamber of type 5 in G 4430 contained a sealing of Chephren and any example of type 4, 5, or 6 may be as early as Chephren. The sizes of these chambers vary greatly, as follows :
(29) G 4840: type 4 b (2); area, 9.44 sq. m.; 28.32 cu. m.
(26) G4630: type 3 am; area, 12.51 sq. m.; 26.64 cu. m.
(23) G 4330: type 3 bl; area, 7.95 sq. m.; 18.28 cu. m.
(31) G 4860 N: type 4 a (2); area, 7.16 sq. m.; 13.58 cu. m.
(24) G 4430: type 5 a (2); area, 3.64 sq. m.; 5.82 cu. m.
(25) G 4530: type 4 a (2); area, 3.12 sq. m.; 5.55 cu. m.
(30) G 4850: type 4 a (2); area, 2.48 sq. m.; 2.6 cu. m.
(28) G 4830: type 6 b (2); area, 2.52 sq. m.; 2.39 cu. m.
(27) G 4730: type 7 x.
Four of these have areas of over 7 sq. m. and are really large chambers. The figures for the first two show sizes comparable with those of the chambers of types I and 2, but less than the rock-cut capacity of the lined chambers. G 4840 (type 4 b (2), with an area of 9.44 sq. m. and cubic capacity of 28.32 cu. m., the largest of the chambers, belonged to the Princess Weneshet. The next in size, the chamber in G 4630, is almost equally large. This chamber and the slightly smaller one in G 4330 are of type 3. G 4330 has an area of 7.95 sq. m. and a cubic capacity of 18.28 cu. m. The fourth in size (G 4860), which has an area of 7.16 sq. m. and a capacity of 13.58 cu. m., belonged to an official who owned a slab-stela. The rest
are small chambers in comparison with the first four. Even the chamber of G 4430, which contained a sealing of Chephren, had an area of 3.64 sq. m. (5.82 cu. m.), while one shaft (G 4730) appears never to have been used. The evidence seems to point to the order of the use of the shafts as being first the group G 4330, 4630, 4840, and 4860, second 4430, 4530, and 4850. The rest were probably used later.
The shafts in the cores of rows I and 2 were with one notable exception used in Dyn. V. The exception is No. 42, G 4710, used by Sethuw. The old core was converted by a casing into a mastaba of type VI a, with nummulitic casing and chapel of type (3) of mixed masonry. The rock-cut part of the 2-m. shaft contracted to 1.7 m. square at the bottom. The chamber was of type 4 a (2) x with an area of 11.16 sq. m. and a capacity of 17.85 cu. m. It contained a nummulitic limestone coffin with
qrst(?)-lid and canopic pit partly sunk and partly built in SE corner. The associated facts place this shaft in Dyn. IV.
The rest of the chambers in lines 2 and I have the rock-cut part much smaller than the cased 2-m. part and are of the later types 4-6. The chambers are of medium size and small. Two of the burials are dated to the reign of Weserkaf, G 4410 and G 4520. Three of the shafts have more than one burial-chamber in the single shaft, G 4320 (2 chambers), G 4520 (3 chambers), and G 4310 (2 chambers).
The chambers arranged in the order of cubic capacity, counting only the chief chamber in shafts with more than one chamber, are as follows:
(39) G 4410: type 4 b (I); area, 10.65 sq. m.; 20.76 cu. m.
(42) G 4710: type 4 a (2) x; area, 11.16 sq. m.; 17.85 cu. m.
(41) G 4610: type 4 b (I); area, 7.25 sq. m.; 15.95 cu. m.
(35) G 4620: type 5 b (I); area, 8.25 sq. m.; 14.33 cu. m.
(34) G 4520: type 5 a (I); area, 6.21 sq. m.; 8.69 cu. m., 3 chambers.
(40) G 4510: type 6 b (I); area, 4.8 sq. m.; 6.96 cu. m.
(36) G 4720: type 5 b (I); area, 4.0 sq. m.; 6.2 cu. m.
(37) G 4820: type 6 b (irreg.); area, 3.0 sq. m.; 3.0 cu. m.
(33) G 4420: type 5 b (2); area, 2.2 sq. m.; 2.75 cu. m.
(38) G 4310: type 6 b (2); area, 1.84 sq. m.; 1.84 cu. m., 2 chambers.
(32) G 4320: type 6 a (2); area, 1.6 sq. m.; 1.6 cu. m., 2 chambers.
Four of these chambers are really large chambers with a cubic capacity of from 14 to 20 cu. m. Of these, three are of type 4, the three largest, and one of type 5. Five have capacities between 2 and 8 cu. m. and represent ordinary ‘large tombs’ according to the sizes used in the later mastabas of Dyn. V, but these are not large chambers from the point of view of mastabas of the size of these mastabas in Cem. G 4000. Three of these are of type 5 and two of type 6. The remaining two chambers are less than 2 cu. m. in size and are small chambers from any point of view. They are of type 6.
The shafts of the different blocks of mastabas show the following distribution of types:
(a) Five initial mastabas: shafts of type I; used in the reign of Cheops.
(b) Eight succeeding mastabas: types I and 3 (one mastaba); used in the reign of Cheops.
(c) The succeeding nine mastabas: type 2; used after the reign of Cheops.
(d) The following nine mastabas: types 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 x; used in the reign of Chephren and later.
(e) The final eleven mastabas of rows 2 and 1; types 4, 5, 6, one of type 4 used in Dyn. IV, and the rest in Dyn. V.
The Distribution of the Shaft Types in Cem. G 2100
The shafts in Cem. G 2100 present a period of usage somewhat similar to those of Cem. G 4000.
Four of the five initial mastabas were of type I, and one of them (G 2130) was certainly used in the reign of Cheops (mud sealing).
The types occur as follows:
(a) The five initial mastabas:
Coretype  Slab-stela  Shaft type  Area sq. m.   Capacity cu. m.     Remarks
(I) G 2130 . . II b .. I cl 9.61 21.62 sole;
(2) G 2110 A . I I a recess I cm 12.24 36.72 chief ;B . II a 3 bf 12.91 18.62 second shaft; C . IIa 3 cr 9.0 17.1 third;
(3) G 2120 . . II a Seshat-sekhentyuw 1 al 11.16 30.13 sole;
(4) G 2110 . . II a .. 4 a (2) 13.11 26.87 sole;
(5) G 2210 . . II a .. I bl 16.5 54.45 sole.
The exact order in which these five shafts were used for burials is not to be define.
(b) The following cores:
The following six cores, three rows in two lines, appear to have been built as one continuous operation after the first five.
The shafts of these six cores have the following types:
Core type  Slab-stela  Shaft type  Area sq. m.  Capacity cu. m.     Remarks
(6) G 2135 (Junker) II a no name I cm 9.24 28.18 sole;
(7) G 2140 . II a .. 3 bf 4.83 6.0 sole;
(8) G 2150 . . II a .. 4 b (1) 14.0 23.1 chief;
(9) G 2155 . . II a .. 4 a (4) 17.2 37.84 chief shaft;
(IO) G 2160 . . II a .. 4 a (2) x 7.15 10.72 chief shaft;
(11) G 2170 . . II a .. 6 a (3) 2.76 3.31 sole; VI b (drab) .. low form; VII b (grey) .. 6 a (3) 2.59 2.46 second shaft; VII (unfin.).
Only one of the shafts in the last six mastabas was given a chamber of type I with lining and pavement.
That is G 2135, excavated by Junker, and it had a slab-stela. There seems no reason to doubt that G 2135 was used in the reign of Cheops or soon after. The mastaba G 2150 at the north end of the same line has a chapel which was decorated after the reign of Mycerinus, and it is probable that both the shafts in 2150 and 2140 were used about the end of Dyn. IV. The distribution by types is as follows:
(a) Type I : four of the five initial shafts and the first on the south of the third line; total 5 shafts.
(b) Type 3: one example; G 2140 (capacity 6.0 cu. m.).
(c) Type 4: four examples; G 2110 (26.87 cu. m.), G 2150 (chief shaft of two-shaft mastaba), 2155, 2160 (area, 7.15 sq. m. capacity, 10.72);
(d) Type 6: one chief shaft, G 2170; and the second shaft in 2150.
The chambers include five lined chambers and six plain rock-cut chambers.
As the lined chambers represent a more expensive form and represent rock-cut chambers of still larger size, I arrange the chambers according to size in two groups:
(a) Lined chambers in order of size:
(5) G 2210 . . I bf 16.5 sq. m. 54.45 cu. m. no pavement; sole shaft;
(2) G 2110 A . I cm 12.24 sq. m. 36.72 cu. m. chief shaft;
(3) G 2120 . . 1 al 11.16 sq. m. 30.13 cu. ni. sole shaft;
(6) G 2135 . . I cm 9.24 sq. m. 28.18 cu. m. no pavement; sole shaft;
(I) G 2130 . . I cl 9.61 sq. m. 21.62 cu. m. sole shaft;
(b) The six rock-cut chambers:
(9) G 2155 . . 4 a (4) 17.2 sq. m. 37.84 cu. m. chief shaft;
(4) G 2110 . . 4 a (2) 13.11 sq. m. 26.87 cu. m. sole shaft 14.0 sq. m. 23.1 cu. m. chief shaft;
(IO) G2160 . . 4 a (2) x 7.15 sq. m. 10.72 cu. m. sole shaft;
(7) G2140 . . 3 bf (low form) 4.83 sq. m. 6.0 cu. m. sole shaft;
(11) G 2170 . 6 a (3) 2.76 sq. m. 3.31 cu. m. sole shaft.
One of the most significant facts is the small size of the lined chamber of the largest and most expensive of the mastabas, G 2130, which was nevertheless the smallest of the lined chambers (9.61 sq. m. and 21.62 cu. m.). This size is in accordance with the sizes of the lined chambers in the four initial mastabas of normal size in G 4000 and the four initial mastabas of normal size in Cem. G 1200. I conclude that G 2130 was the first of the chambers to be finished in Cem. G 2100, and was previous in date to the chambers of larger size in G 4000 and G 1201. I believe that after the construction of these large chambers the size of the lined chambers was also increased. It is clear that the largest chamber, G 2210, which had no pavement and unfinished lining, was by reason of the reconstruction of the mastaba later than 2130, 2120, and 2100. It is to be associated with the fourth in size, G 2135, because of the similar state of the lining and lack of pavement. But 2135, by reason of its smaller size and its slab-stela, probably had its chamber constructed earlier than that of 2210. Particular attention is to be directed to the size and beautiful finish of the lined chamber A of G 2100, the tomb of the mother or father of ‘Prince’ Mer-ib.
Three of the rock-cut chambers are of very large size, all with a cubic capacity of over 20 cu. m.
They are all three of shaft type 4 and all three had decorated chapels. The fourth in size, the chamber of G 2160, is of about IO cu. m., while the other two are very small for the size of the mastabas, being 6.0 cu. ni. (G 2140) and 3.31 cu. m. (G 2170). G 2140 has an interior white stone chapel of type (3) with unfinished decoration, and the other two probably had exterior c.b. chapels destroyed or obstructed by later constructions. The two shafts 2150 and 2155 are shown by the chapels of those mastabas to be either late in Dyn. IV or early in Dyn. V. The shaft 2110, by reason of the portcullis groove and the reserve head and the old type of white limestone sarcophagus, appears to be earlier. Next after this probably came 2140. The two chambers in 2160 and 2170 are difficult to place but are probably of late Dyn. IV or early Dyn. V. Thus the series runs parallel to those in Cem. G 4000 but contains a much smaller number of chambers.
 The Distribution of the Shaft Types in Cem. G 1200
While the shafts in Cem. G 4000 and G 2100 present a variety of types and range in time to the end of Dyn. IV (to Dyn. V in Cem. G 4000), Cem. G 1200 is much more homogeneous. All the chambers of the main mastabas are of type I and only the shafts in the annexes of G 1223, 1225, 1227, and 1233 present another type. Eight of the ten mastabas had slab-stelae. It is clear that the ten mastabas are the result of a continued construction beginning in the reign of Cheops, as proved by the mason’s graffito found on a lining block from the chamber of G 1203. I would place the shafts in the following chronological order :
(I) G 1223 . . II a Prince 1 bmx 9.53 sq. m. 24.8 cu. m. sole shaft
(2) G 1203 . . II a K a n o f e r I cl 9.3 sq. m. 30.69 cu. m. sole shaft
(3) G 1225 . . II a Princess I bl 8.96 sq. m. 24.19 cu. m. sole shaft
(4) G 1205 . . II a Khufuw-nekht I cl 8.99 sq. m. 21.47 cu. m. sole shaft
(5) G 1201 . . II a Prince 1 al 13.6 sq. m. 46.51 cu. m. sole shaft, IV iii Ka-m-aha, IV iii Nefert-yabet, IV iii Wepemnofret.
The above are the five initial mastabas.
(6) G 1227 . . IIa Sethy-hekenet I ar 9.73 sq. m. 28.7 cu. m. sole shaft
(7) G 1207 . . II a Nofert 1 al 8.64 sq. m. 19.14 cu. m. sole shaft
(7) G 1207 . . II a Nofert 1 al 8.64 sq. m. 19.14 cu. m. sole shaft
The Distribution of the Shaft Types in Cem. G 7000
With the shaft types of the reign of Cheops marked out in the three nucleus cemeteries

of the Western Field, the shaft types of Cem. G 7000 made after year 20 of Cheops, and onwards to the end  of the reign of Chephren, may now be examined.
The type forms are distributed as follows:
(a) The four northern twin-mastabas :
Core type  Mast. type Shaft type Area sq. m.  Capacity cu. m.   Remarks
(1) G 7120 A IVii VI x 3 cf 25.0 87.5  sloping passage from ENE; granite coffin ; Prince Ka-wab;
(2) G 7110 B IVii VI x 3 af 22.25 77.87  unused: Hetep-heres II;
(3) G 7220 A IV i VIx 3 amx 41.43 122.64 unfin. red granite coffin; Hor-dedef;
(4) G 7210 B IVi VI x 3 af 25.18 85.61;
(5) G 7320 A IVii VI x 3 af 26.22 89.14 red granite coffin; broken;
(6) G 7310 B IVii VI x 4 a (I) 27.23 58.27 w. 1st. coffin; broken;
(7) G 7420 A III VI x 3 cmx 32.49 120.21 unused (?);
(8) G 7410 B III VI x 3 af 41.88 121.22 2 chambers; red granite sarc.; Meresankh II;
(b) The finished twin-mastabas at the west end of the southern row:
(9) G 7130 B IV VI x 4 a (I) 43.59 113.08 2 rooms and alcove burialchamber partly lined ; altered by Ptol. cuttings; granite coffin; Prince Khufuw-khaf;
(10) G 7130 A IV VI x 6 b (2) 3.62 3.8 open and empty;
(11) G 7230 B IV VI e 3 clx 18.92 61.49 altered by Ptol. cuttings;
(12) G 7230 A IV VI e 3 al 21.6 64.8 open and empty;
(13) G 7330 B IV VI 3 bf 15.48 52.53 (uncased)  open and empty; altered by Ptol. cuttings;
(14) G 7330 A IV VI 3 bf 7.2 13.68 (uncased) unfinished; plundered
(c) The two unfinished cores of the southern twin-mastabas:
11) G 7230 B IV VI e 3 clx 18.92 61.49 altered by Ptol. cuttings;
(12) G 7230 A IV VI e 3 al 21.6 64.8 open and empty;
(13) G 7330 B IV VI 3 bf 15.48 52.53 open and empty; altered by;
(14) G 7330 A IV VI 3 bf 7.2 13.68 unfinished; plundered;
(d) The fourth of the southern twin-mastabas, cased in the reign of Chephren:
(15) G 7430 A IV VIx 3 ani 42.0 136.42 2 rooms; red granite sarc.;Min-khaf;
(16) G 7430 B Iv VIx 4 a (1) 13.0 43.55 2(lined) chambers; 2nd unfinished
(e) The succeeding six mastabas built around the eight twin-mastabas :
(17) G 7510 B IViii ..VI x (ramp)  2 amx 13.11 45.88 no sarc.; no can. rec.; no pavement;
(18) G 7650 C IV iv .. 3 afx 2 5 . 7 1 0 0 . 2 3 granite sarc.; chief shaft; B IVx .. 7″ .. .. unused; A .. .. 3 amx 24.65 92.44 empty.
(19) G 7450 A IV iii .. 3 al 22.74 60.49 rough-built burial-pit; VI (unfin.); B .. .. 7 x .. .. shaft B; unused;
(20) G 7520 A IV .. 3 cm 24.56 88.41 stone coffin; intrusive;
(21) G 7530 A r.c. .. 4 a (1) 15.4 28.79 bl. gran. sarc.; Meresankh;
(22) G 7350 A IV VI x 3 am 33.8 167.31 red gran. ; Hetep-heres II (?); III; B .. .. 7″ .. .. unused; C .. .. (2) 4 b (1) 10.54 15.81 unfinished; .. (1) 6 b (1) 3.8 3.87 unfinished (?);
(23) G 7050 B .. V x 3 bm 17.95 38.59 reused Ptol.;
(24) G 7550 B VI a (3) .. 3 amx 24.22 80.82 Duwa-ne-Hor; (f) The eight following nummulitic mastabas of type VI a: A .. .. 6 b (2) 0.74 0.4 begun as type 4; (unfin.);
(25) G 7660 B VI a (3) .. 3 afx 32.22 81.45 2 connect. rooms; red gran. sarc.; Ka-m-sekhem; A .. .. 3 cl 27.28 105.85 empty;(26) G 7760 B VI a (3) .. 3 al 40.71 122.84 2 connect. rooms; red gran.sarc. ; Min-dedef; A .. .. 3 bf 8.75 15.31 empty;
(27) G 7750 B VI a (3) .. 3 am 6.86 12.35 chamber 2; ;chamber I (1) type 3 (unfin.) A .. .. 3 bf 6.5 19.82 empty;
(28) G 7060 B VI a (3) .. 4 b (4) x 17.88 35.76 w. 1st. sarc.; Xeferma’at;
(29) G 7070 B VI a (3) .. 4 b (4) x 18.88 38.59 w. 1st. sarc.; Seneferuw-khaf;
(30) G 7820 A VI a (3) .. 4 b (1) 6.88 12.04 empty; Princess Nefert-kauw; B .. .. 3 af 16.4 47.56 canopic pit; husband of princess;
(31) G 7810 A VI a (3) .. 3 afx 18.13 46.32 coffin-pit; canopic pit; turning recess, wife of Zaty; B .. .. 3 bf 19.78 63.29 canopic pit; turning recess; Prince Zaty;
(5) Mastabas in lines 5 and 6 south of 7550 and 7660:
(32) G 7560 A VI a (3) .. 7 x .. .. no chamber; B .. .. 4 b (1) 12.84 37.71 broken w. 1st. coffin and two reserve heads;
(33) G 7670 A VI a (3) .. 4 b (1) 5.26 4.49 in process of enlargement (unfin.); B .. .. 3 bf 11.34 22.11 canopic pit; plundered;
(34) G 7690 A IV iii .. 3 af 12.58 19.12 plundered; B .. .. 4 a (1) x 9.28 19.3 plundered.
The occurrence of the types may be summarized as follows:
Type 3 af: G 7110 B, 7210 B, 7410 B, 7320 A; 4 examples.
Type 3 amx (stair): G 7220 A; I example.
Type 3 cf: G 7120 (sloping passage); 1 example.
Type 3 cmx: G 7420 A; I example.
Sum total of type 3: 7 shafts.
Type 4 a (I): G 7310 B; I example.
Total shafts 8: of which 7 are of type 3, while I is of type 4.
(a) The four northern twin-mastabas :
It is to be noted that all the other shafts in the four northern twin-mastabas were of type 7 x and apparently unused.
(b) The finished mastabas, the westernmost of the four southern twin-mastabas:
Type 4 a (1) (2 chambers and coffin alcove): G 7130 B; I example.
Type 6 b (2): G 7130 A; I example.
Total: I shaft of type 4 and I shaft of type 6.
(c) The two unfinished mastabas of the four southern twin-mastabas:
Type 3 bf: G 7330 A and B; 2 shafts.
Type 3 al: G 7230 A; I example.
Type 3 clx: G 7230 B; I example.
Total number of shafts: 4, all of type 3.
(d-e) The fourth twin-mastaba on the south and the succeeding six mastabas:
Type 2 amx (ramp) lined: G 7510 B.
Type 3 afx: G 7650 A.
Type 3 al (unfin.): G 7450 A.
Type 3 am: G 7430, 7350 A; 2 examples.
Type 3 amx: G 7650 A; I example.
Type 3 bm: G 7050 B; I example.
Type 3 cm: G 7520 A; I example.
Type 4 a (I) (lined): G 7430 B (second room unfinished).
Type 4 a (I): G 7530 A; I example.
Type 4 b (1): G 7350 C (2); unfinished.
Total examples of type 3: 7 shafts.
Total number of shafts, I I in 7 mastabas: I of type z; 7 of type 3; and 3 of type 4, excluding formless unfinished chambers and shafts of type 7 x.
One of the shafts (G 7530 A) of type 4 a (I) was made probably in the first year of Shepseskaf. The shafts in 7350 are assigned by me to a few years later, shaft A of type 3 am and C of type 4 b (I). All the other shafts in this group of seven mastabas were made after the accession of Chephren and probably before the end of his reign.
(f) The eight following nummulitic mastabas of type VI with chapels of type (3):
Type 3 afx: G 7660 B (2 chambers), 7810 A; 2 examples.
Type 3 bf: G 7750 A, G 7810 B; 2 examples.
Type 3 bfx: G 7760 A.
d. Conclusions drawn from the Comparison of the Sizes of Mastaba Chambers
This examination of the sizes of the burial-chambers in the nucleus cemeteries at Giza reveals the following facts :
(a) The earliest burial-chambers finished in the Western Field had approximately a mean size of 10.23 sq. m. and 26.79 cu. m.; this mean is given by the measurements of eighteen chambers in mastabas of normal size and one chamber in a mastaba larger than normal size (G 2130); the other lined chambers in cores of the same groups vary in general around this mean size, a few smaller and a few larger.
(b) The first abnormally large chambers are two examples of those of type I in the same groups: one with a capacity of 89.78 cu. m. is in the large mastaba G 4000, and the other of 46.51 cu. m. is in the large mastaba G 1201; the examples of lined chambers of type I, which exceed by marked figures the mean size of such chambers, appear to be later than the two very large chambers.
(c) Three of the lined chambers of type 2 in the Western Field follow the mean size laid down for the lined chambers of type I, and the five unlined chambers were designed to have lined chambers of this size ; one of the lined chambers in row 4 of Cem. G 4000 is abnormally large, 46.88 cu. m., and this belonged to the Princess Merytyetes.
(d) There are two other chambers of type 2 which appear to belong to about the same period as the nine in Cem. G 4000; one of these, the lined chamber of G 7510 with a capacity of 45.88 cu. m., is in the great mastaba G 7510, dated to the early part of the reign of Chephren; its size is about the same as the two largest chambers of this type in Cem. G 4000; the other chamber of type 2 (with lining marked off in red lines but never built) is the mastaba G 2000 in the Western Field, larger even than G 7510; this mastaba is the largest in the nucleus cemeteries at Giza and its rock-cut chamber is also the largest (204.67 cu. m.); its lined chamber, if it had been finished, would have been much larger than any other lined chamber (136.26 cu. m.).
(e) The lined chambers of type I I ascribe to the reign of Cheops; the chambers of type 2, partly lined and partly left unlined (unfinished), certainly follow the lined chambers of type I (except for one or two late examples); the unfinished condition of many chambers and mastabas of this group I attribute to their being unfinished at the death of Cheops ; some of them were probably finished or used in the reign of Chephren; it is in this group that we find the extraordinarily
large chamber of the great mastaba G 2000.
(f) The chambers of type 3 in the four north twin-mastabas were probably designed to .be lined; those chambers which were excavated in the reign of Cheops or in that of Radedef ranged in size from about 120 to about 80 cu. m., of which the three largest approach in size the rockcut chamber of Prince Hemyuwen (G 4000) in the Western Field. The chambers present two sizes, a larger of about 120 cu. m. and a smaller size of about 85 cu. m.; the two-room apartment, in which the second smaller room was a coffin-room, appears first in this group of the larger size.
(g) The chambers in the 5th-7th twin-mastabas of the south row range irregularly from 113 cu. m. down to 13 cu. m., as was to be expected for shafts made by the owners at their own expense after the reign of Cheops.
(h) The chambers dated certainly to the reign of Chephren present no normal size, and range from 136 cu. m. downwards.(i) The chambers made late in the reign of Chephren or later present the same irregularities in size, and one of them, G 7350 A (Queen Hetep-heres II), has the exceptional capacity of 167.31 cu. m.; obviously these chambers were made by the owners, and the largest chambers probably belong to those persons who had the greatest means.
In conclusion, when the nucleus cemeteries were begun by Cheops his department of public works adopted a normal size both for the mastaba-cores and for the lined burial-chambers. As might be expected in the execution of such a scheme, certain persons of the highest rank and greater favour obtained both mastaba and chamber larger than the normal size. Conversely, others were obliged to be content with smaller chambers and a few with smaller mastabas. When the new type 2 with ramp or stair was introduced, the same normal size of chamber with the same variations continued to occur.
Type 3 was introduced fortuitously under circumstances which prevented the lining of the chambers, and was actually planned as a development of type I and perhaps type 2 also, but of larger than normal size. The shafts in the four north twin-mastabas were apparently designed as one-room apartments, probably with a maximum size of about 90 cu. m., but a number of them were enlarged, three with the addition of a second coffin-chamber in one of which the second chamber was left unfinished (Prince Hordedef, Meresankh II, Prince Rabauwf (?), unfinished). The western mastaba in the southern row of twin-mastabas also had a two-roomed chamber.
The chambers which are certainly dated to the reign of Chephren and last in the Eastern Field present great variations from chamber to chamber and range in size up to 167.31 cu. m. (7350), and were apparently mostly executed by the owner from private means. Three of the chambers had again two-room apartments of which one was unfinished. The sizes of the chambers correspond obviously to the position and wealth of the owner.