THE GREAT MASTABA G 2000
The great mastaba G 2000 is the largest mastaba in the Western Field, equalled in size only by the mastaba of Prince Ankh-haf in the Eastern Field. G 2000 stands on cracked ground with uneven surface sloping to the north,
north of the initial cores of Cem. G 4000 and between the other two early nucleus cemeteries G 1200 and G 2100. The space on the east between it and Cem. G 2100 is about 50 m. wide E-W, and that on the west between it and Cem. G 1200 is about 75 m. wide E-W.
The ground over and around the site occupied by G 2000 was obviously unoccupied when G 2000 was built, but certainly the initial core-mastabas of the three early nucleus cemeteries were already in place. The vacant spaces were filled with complexes of mastabas beginning in Dyn. IV and extending to the end of Dyn. VI.
G 2000 is associated in size with G 7510 (Prince Ankh-haf). In material and construction it resembles G 7410 + 7420 (Queen Meresankh II and her husband). The core is of massive nummulitic masonry faced with stepped courses of drab limestone (core type III-ii). It was in process of casing with white limestone with interior chapel of white limestone of type (4 a), but the casing was left unfinished. The massive nummulitic masonry is related to similar core-work used in Cem. G 4000 after the initial five mastabas, to the core-work of the eight twin-mastaba in the Eastern Field, and to the core-work used in the enlargements of G 1201, G 1223, and G 1225. The facing with stepped courses of drab limestone
is related to the facing of the massive cores G 4140 and G 4350 which, however, had no chapel recess (type III-i).

The stepped appearance of the facing is that presented by core-types II a and II b used for the fifteen initial cores of the Western Field. Type II a continued in use to the reign of Mycerinus.
The interior chapel of type (4 a) marks the mastaba in its finished form as not earlier than the eight twin-mastabas.
The position of the one used burial-shaft is that of the man’s shaft in a two-shaft mastaba and therefore probably later in date than the eight twin-mastabas. The type of the burial-chamber is also significant of a date later in the reign of Cheops or early in the reign of Chephren. The type is 2 alx (ramp), with red construction-lines marking the designed lining of white limestone (never built). This type of chamber occurs in nine mastabas of the second addition to Cem. G 4000 (G 4140 to G 4740, G 4750, G 4760), of which four were lined with white limestone and five were left unlined.
In the Eastern Field, G 7510 (Ankh-haf) had a lined chamber of type 2 amx (ramp), and the burial apartment of the queen’s pyramid G I-a had a ramp in the anteroom (turning room) at the foot of the sloping passage.
Thus G 2000, isolated as to position in a field containing three nucleus cemeteries begun by Cheops, is closely connected by the types of its core, its chapel, and its burial-chamber with mastabas of the second addition to Cem. G 4000, with the fourth or the easternmost of the twin-mastabas of the Eastern Field, and with the great mastaba of Prince Ankh-haf (G 7510). The date thus indicated is not earlier than the last two years of Cheops and not later than the first five years of Chephren.
G 2000 :
-isolated mastaba on independent site : on rock sloping gently to N:
See pCem1200-2100 and pFig4G2000 (mastaba), 237 a, (shaft), 237 b (pottery jar).
See Pls. 25 a-d, 26 a, b.
Name: not recovered, but a person of great means, probably a prince of the blood royal.
Excavated: the west side of the mastaba in 1903-4 with Cem. 1000; the east side in 1905-6; shaft excavated Jan.- March 1912 ; re-examined in 1935; NE corner cleared in 1936-7.

Mastaba: core of type III-ii; consisting of massive nummulitic core work of type IV-iii faced with stepped courses of drab nummulitic limestone (z-masonry); with two recesses for interior chapels in the massive core-work and in the stepped facing; the northern recess was walled off later by stepped masonry and filled with large blocks. The larger southern recess contained an interior chapel of type (4 a) of white limestone : a casing of white limestone was begun but only a few blocks of the lowest course were set in place; faced core, 105.0 x 53.2 m.; area, 5586.0 sq. m.; prop. 1/1.97; max. height of mastaba, 9.6 m.; max. height of stepped facing, on west, 5.2 m.; max. height of stepped facing, on east, 6.3 m.; average height of stepped courses, 0.39 m.; average width of steps, 0.11 m.
Southern chapel recess in faced core: 10.6 x 7.6 m.; area, 80.56 sq. m.
Northern chapel recess in faced core: 9.0 x 9.0 m.; area, 81.0 sq. m.; floor of recess at top of sixth course from bottom 0.32 m. below floor of southern chapel.
Chapel: interior chapel at south end of east face: type (4 a) of white limestone with exterior c.b. chapel and subsidiary N niche:
(a) interior N-S offering-room of white limestone with two niches in west wall; 4.5 x 1.75 m.; area, 7.87 sq. m.; prop. 1/2.57; entered by doorway in north end of east wall ; the white masonry of the east wall projects eastwards of the faced facade, and was intended to be bonded with the unfinished white casing.
Exterior c.b. chapel, type (1 g), with four rooms (b, c, d, e); outside, 8.8 x 9.97 m. with total area of 86.24 sq. m.; the outer rectangle was formed by three walls, 0.8 m. thick; inside this rectangle four rooms were made by building dividing walls, 0.55-0.65 m. thick.
(b) N-S hall around entrance to room (a): 7.25 x 2.1 m.; area, 15.22 sq. m.; with doorway to offering-room in middle of west side; entered from east, from room (e), by doorway in south end of east wall; possibly a doorway to room now destroyed.
c) N-S room east of south half of (b): 4.0 x 2.32 m,; area, 9.28 sq. m.; entered from east from room (b) by doorway in south end of east wall, now blocked with c.b.; doorway to room (b), in south end of west wall also blocked with c.b.; the room was occupied later by two intrusive shafts X and U.
(d) room north of (c): 4.0 x 3.5 m. ; area, 14.0 sq. m.; entered from east from outside by doorway just north of middle of east wall, main entrance to chapel; no embrasure on outside but door embrasure on inside reinforced on south side; doorway to room (c), in south end of west wall now blocked with c.b.; doorway to room (e) near east end of north wall, partly broken down.
(e) large E-W hall north of (c) and (d): 2.6 x 6.6 m.; area, 17.16 sq. m.; entered from south from (d), by doorway in east end of south wall; doorway to room (b), possible in south end of west wall where wall is broken; intrusive shaft Z in the NE corner of room.
Total floor area, b-e, 55.66 sq. m.
Total floor area, a-e, 63-53 sq. m.
Alteration by intrusive shafts, an intruded c.b. wall in room (b) and by decay.
Subsidiary North Niche: in the stepped wall closing the northern chapel recess, north of the middle, is constructed a recess, 1.45 x 1.3 m., with a ka-door constructed in the west wall; inner niche measures 0.5 x 0.5 m.; the floor of the niche is 3 courses above the rock, 1.88 m. below floor of southern chapel; the height as preserved is 2.89 m.
Shafts in G 2000: the mastaba was searched thoroughly but only one shaft was found which certainly belonged to the mastaba; this was near the medial axis south of the middle in the position of the chief shaft in a two-shaft mastaba; as the northern chapel was never constructed, I conclude that the mastaba was designed as a twoshaft mastaba but the northern shaft was never built (cf. the great mastaba G 75 IO in the Eastern Field); SW of the chief shaft B, was an unfinished intrusive shaft lettered A.
Shaft G 2000 A: intrusive unfinished shaft SW. of B: 2.85 x 2.7 m. at top ; the mouth of the shaft appears probably formed but below the first course of masonry we found a thieves’ shaft of smaller size, filled with drift sand, cut through the filling of the mastaba to a depth of -7.5 m.
Shaft G 2000 B: chief and only original shaft, in position of chief shaft in two-shaft mastaba; 2.6 x 2.6 m. at top ; 2.5 x 2.55 m. at bottom; -24.5 m. in rock; lined above with massive masonry (grey nummulitic stone), 14.6 m., twenty-five courses, total depth 39.1 m., as preserved; originally at least 40.5 m.; two chambers, (I) on north, unfinished and (2) on south, used for burial.
Chamber (1): at 0.85 m. above bottom of shaft ; unfinished chamber, 3.6 x 2.6 m. and 0.9 m. high; area, 9.36 sq. m.; capacity, 8.42 cu. m.
Chamber (2): actual burial-chamber ; at bottom of shaft; type 2 alx (ramp) ; on south; 6.15 x 6.4 m. and 5.2 m. high; area, 39.36 sq. m.; capacity, 204.67 cu. m.
Passage: opens in pit in bottom of shaft, 1.6 x 1.45 m. with drop of 1.0 m. on north to floor of sloping passage; horizontal length of sloping passage from north end of pit to chamber, 7.25 m.; sloping length of floor, 7.8 m.; roof, 6.0 m.; width, 1.5 m., 1.65 m. high at right angles to slope; opens in chamber, 0.75 m. above floor and 2.4 m. below roof of chamber ; ramp, with horizontal length of 1.3 m. with width of 1.5-1.3 m.; step down at end of ramp, 0.25 m.
Blocking: blocks found in chamber indicate that the whole passage was filled with interior blocking of masonry laid in plaster ; no trace of a portcullis slab was found ; blocking, apparently type II b (1).
Lining: red construction lines on walls and ceiling for the construction of white lining but the lining was never begun.

Semetery of Palace Attendants

by Ann Macy Roth
Малый некрополь Cem2000 примыкает с севера к северо-восточному углу самой большой мастабы Египта G2000. Узкий клин небольших по размеру мастаб  Cem2000 тянется от угла G2000 почти строго на восток до некрополя Cem2100.

The Architecture of the Mastabas
Foundation. The mastabas in the cluster appear to have been built directly on bedrock. Reisner surmised that the rock formation upon which the cluster rests was avoided during the building of the core cemeteries of large mastabas. He reasoned that its irregular surface, its sharp slope down to the north, and the frequency of “bad rock,” a layer of red gravel and flint nodules that overlies it in some areas, made it undesirable. The slope of the underlying bedrock down to the north can be seen clearly in the shafts cut into the rock as well as the elevation drawn across a north–south section of the cluster. The tombs of this part of the cemetery, Reisner concluded, were built over what had previously been “a drainage gully through which rainwater ran off the terrace into the wady on the north.” However, the fact that substantial mastabas were eventually built in this area, and in other areas where the bedrock was far from ideal, casts some doubt on the degree to which Egyptian builders were limited by such considerations.
Wall Construction.
The mastaba tombs in this group were built entirely of stone, with the exception of a few mud-brick lined secondary shafts and some rubble-built structures of uncertain purpose.
The mastabas are solid structures, consisting of a rubble fill retained by battered or stepped stone-built facades. Chapels and shafts are similarly lined with vertical retaining walls. Spur walls are not solid, but consist of a rubble fill within two parallel skins. The fill of mastabas and walls was not excavated by Reisner’s team. Surface observation reveals that this fill often contained waste stone, granite fragments, and discarded ceramics, including bread molds, beer
jars, and model offering vessels.
The mastabas were built entirely of nummulitic limestone, probably quarried from other parts of the Giza plateau area. Some blocks contain veins of a purplish mineral that appear initially to be paint. Other blocks have a distinctive stratum of soft stone that weathers easily and appears as a white streak. This streak runs across several blocks in the final extension of G2088 at the same level, which implies that they were quarried from adjacent areas in a single stratum of stone. This is also true, though less strikingly, of the upper course on the west face of G2230 and in other areas. No granite or other
non-native stones survives in architectural use. It may be that imported stone was used, but was removed by the time of the excavations, since such stone was often the first to be scavenged.
In mastaba G2097, the interior chapel walls are of a limestone with a noticably higher proportion of nummulitic inclusions than that found in the chapel walls of other mastabas. This harder stone allowed the decoration to be carved into the stone itself rather than into a plaster facing (as was the case with wall decoration in most other tombs). Unfortunately, the weathering of the stone between the nummulitic inclusions and the greater whiteness of those inclusions
has created distracting patterns that make the delicate low relief carving difficult to see and photograph. The fact that the south wall of the chapel, which was originally the north facade of G2096, also has such inclusions suggests that this nummulite-filled stone was also used for exterior mastaba facades, where the rough finish makes the nummulites less obvious, and the hardness and durability they lend the stone would be desirable. Since the decoration in G2097 is of a higher quality than that elsewhere in the cluster, it may be that this type of stone was more difficult to carve, and could thus be used for decorated walls only by a tomb owner who could afford to hire the most expert craftsmen.
A single thickness of exterior masonry seems to form both the retaining wall and the facade of these mastabas, in contrast to earlier mastabas, where a masonry inner retaining wall was usually faced with a separate casing. Reisner recorded three types of exterior masonry in the cluster, u-masonry, z-masonry, and w-masonry.
Z-masonry forms a stepped facade. Each facing stone has only a slight batter, of between 5° and 10°, but is set back about 5 cm from the front edge of the stone below it. The joints are level, and the courses are horizontal and of uniform height (usually about 35 cm).
This facing tends to occur on the earlier mastabas in the cluster.
Among the later mastabas, the most common facade type is U-masonry, which forms a battered exterior wall with an angle of 10° to 15°. The courses tend to be horizontal and uniform, although there are sometimes steps in the horizontal joints. There is more variation in the heights of courses than with z-masonry, and they are generally higher, often around 50 cm in height. Vertical joints can be angled, though usually not more than 15º. Walls of u-masonry vary considerably in their degree of finish; in some walls, the faces of the blocks protrude less than a centimeter beyond the joints, while other walls
extend 5 cm or more beyond that point.
Only a single mastaba, G2230, exhibited W-masonry, which is a battered rather than a stepped facade, distinguished by very large, very roughly finished blocks. As in U-masonry, the horizontal joints are level, and only occasionally stepped; but vertical joints seem to be more consistently vertical.
Both horizontal and vertical joints of even the most roughly finished walls were often filled with plaster, down the center of which a single line was scored.
G2084
Mastaba type: VIII c[/b] (1) “of irregular form”, southern part 4.5 x 5.8 m, middle part 4.0 x 4.2 m [against 2086], northern part 0.95 x 2.55 m [against 2085 and spur wall], total area 45.32 sq. m, preserved height 1.45 m, facing masonry type: u; [south face: z].

Chapel type: (5) “interior corridor type” corridor 8.25 x 1.1 m (no preserved doorjambs), chapel area: 9.07 sq. m; proportion 1/7.5; relation 1/5.0
Shaft A: 0.93 x 1.1 m; 1.6 m (4 courses) masonry; -1.0 m in rock chamber type: 8 e on north. 1.65 x 0.6 m; height 0.8 m, area 0.99 sq. m; capacity 0.79 cu. m,
no blocking.
Shaft B: 1.1 x 0.65 m; 1.7 m lined with rubble; ends at rock chamber type: 8 b(2) on south. 1.6 x 0.55 m; height 0.6 m, area 0.88 sq. m; capacity 0.52 cu. m,
blocking type: ve(2); one leaning slab chinked on both sides.
Shaft C: 0.7 x 0.65 m; 2.15 m lined with rubble; -0.5 in rock chamber type: 8 a(1) on east. 1.1 x 0.5 m; height 0.75 m, area 0.55 sq. m; capacity 0.41 cu. m,,
passage: 0.5 x 0.25 m; height 0.6 m, no blocking.
G2085
Mastaba type: X b(1), measurements 8.3 x 3.95 m, total area: 32.8 sq. m, oriented askew: 12 degrees 30 minutes east of north, proportion: 1/2.10 height: 1.45 m facing masonry type:z.

Chapel type: (9c) “open air passage”, “monolithic ka-door” in recess 0.7 x 0.15 m, uninscribed.
Shaft A: 1.0 x 0.9 at top; 0.65 x 0.65 at bottom 1.55 m lined with rubble; -4.8 m in rock, chamber type: 5 c(2) on west. 1.25 x 0.9 m; height 0.9 m, area 1.12 sq. m; capacity 1.01 cu. m., floor of chamber 0.15 m lower than base of shaft passage 0.65 x 0.25 m; height 0.9 m, no blocking.
Shaft b: 1.0 x 0.9 m; 1.35 m lined with rubble; -3.3 m in rock, chamber type: 7x (no chamber).
Shaft C: 0.95 x 0.95 m; 1.15 m lined with rubble; -4.5 m in rock, chamber type: 4 a(5) on west. 1.4 x 1.0 m; height 0.7 m, area 1.4 sq. m; capacity 0.98 cu. m,
passage 0.95 x 0.5 m; 0.05 m lower than floor of chamber burial pit 1.15 x 0.65 m; 0.7 m deep; ledge on each side no blocking.
Shaft D: 1.0 x 0.95 m; 1.0 m lined with rubble; -4.15 m in rock, chamber type: 4 a(1) on west. 1.35 x 1.1 m, roof slopes up to east; height on west 0.85 m
area 1.48 sq. m; capacity 1.25 cu. m, passage 0.85 x 0.65 m; step 0.05 m to floor of chamber, burial pit 1.2 x 0.75 m; 0.7 m deep.
G2086
Mastaba type: VIII c(1), measurements: 9.25 x 5.05 m, area: 46.71 sq. m; proportion 1/1.83, roofed exterior corridor: 5.05 x 0.7 m, eastern alcove 4.25 x 3.25 m, area of corridor and alcove 17.34 sq. m, total area with addition: 64.05 sq. m, height 2.0 m, facing masonry type: [u].
Chapel type: (6) “interior offering room;” fully decorated; 2.2 x 1.17 m, area 2.57 sq. m; proportion 1/1.88; relation 1/18.17,  addition: “exterior chapel” type (5ax); no niche, corridor 4.49 x 0.7 m; eastern alcove 3.3 x 1.9 m, chapel area with addition: 11.92 sq. m, relation to final mastaba: 1/5.37.
Serdab: 2.95 x 1.0 m; 1.95 m deep; area 2.95 sq. m, vertical slot window, just north of middle of west wall of chapel.
Shaft A: 1.0 x 1.1 m; 2.1 m (6 courses) lined with masonry; -2.3 m in rock chamber type: 5 b(1) on north. 1.75 x 1.2–1.65 m; height 0.8 m, area 2.48 sq. m; capacity 1.98 cu. m, passage 0.15 x 1.0; height 0.8 m.
G2087
Mastaba type: VIIIc(1) irregular mastaba; 3.7–4.55 x 6.75 m; area: 27.81 sq. m; proportion: 1/0.61; height preserved: 1.6 m; facing masonry type: u; east and south.
Chapel type: (5) interior corridor, no niche in west wall 3.2 x 1.0 m; area: 3.2 sq. m; proportion 1/3.2.
Shaft A: 1.1 x 1.05 m; 1.8 m (5 courses) lined with masonry; ends at rock; chamber type: 8 a(1) on west. 1.85 x 0.85; height 0.9 m; area 1.57 sq. m; capacity 1.41 cu. m.
Blocking type: IV d(2); passage 0.6 x 0.5 m; height 0.65 m; burial pit 1.85 x 0.45 m; 0.15 m deep, lined with masonry.
G2088
Mastaba type: vii b(1)24 original mastaba: [10.5 x 5.9 m], original area: 61.95 sq. m, facing masonry type: [z].
1st addition: extension and pillared portico 10.5 x 1.85 m (exterior measurements), area of addition: 19.43 sq. m, facing masonry type: [z].
2nd addition: open court 5.65–6.0 x 5.2 m (exterior measurements), area of addition: 30.26 sq. m, facing masonry type: [u].
total area: 111.64 sq. m
G2089
The tomb of Nefer-ked;
Mastaba type: vii [b] (1), 10.4 x 5.3 m; height 2.10 m, area: 55.15 sq. m; proportion: 1/1.96, area after encroachment by 2091 extension: 41.37 sq. m, facing masonry type: [z].
Serdab: 1.35 x 0.6 m;
Shaft a: 1.3 x 1.3 m; 1.4 m (4 courses) lined with masonry; -2.95 in rock,
chamber type: 6 a(2) on east. 1.75 x 0.9 m; height 0.9 m, area 1.57 sq. m; 1.41 cu. m,
blocking type: v e+(2) intact.
G2091
The tomb of Kapi;
Mastaba type: viii c(1) with eastwards projection to contain alcove, main body of mastaba: 11.4–11.9 x 8.1 m48, area 94.36 sq. m; proportion: 1/1.43, east projection: 3.25 x 0.9 m, area 2.92 sq. m, total area: 97.28 sq. m, facing masonry type: large u-masonry;
Chapel type: (10c)
Shaft a: 1.45 x 1.4 m; 2.22 m (6 courses) lined in masonry; -3.75 in rock, chamber type: 4 b(2) on south. 2.7 x 2.15 m; height 1.45 m, area 5.8 sq. m; capacity 8.41 cu. m;
blocking type: remains of exterior rubble with traces of mud, probably v e+(2),
passage without jambs 0.5 x 1.2 m; height 1.45 m;
coffin: limestone; outside 2.4 x 0.95 m; height 0.7 m cavity 2.1 x 0.6 m; 0.5 m deep; thickness of ˚rst lid 0.24 m.
G2092+2093
The tomb of ZA-IB;
Mastaba type: viii c[/b](1)61, composite mastaba formed by addition to nucleus 13.85 x 10.45 m; height 3.0 m on east, 2.45 m on west, area 144.73 sq. m; proportion 1/1.32;
exterior chapel [pillared court] on the north: about 4.9 x 6.3 m, area 30.87 sq. m;
total area: 175.60 sq. m;
facing masonry type: [2093 is z-masonry, 2092 is u-masonry].
G2094
Mastaba type: viii [b](1), original mastaba 11.35 x 5.6 m; area 63.56; proportion 1/2.02, finished by building s. wall east to s.w. corner of G2093;
final dimensions: 11.35 x 6.65 m;
total final area: 75.47 sq. m; proportion 1/1.7;
height 2.45 m on east; 1.75 m on west, where rock is higher, facing masonry type: z;
height 1.4 m, built of masonry.
G2095 and G2095′
Mastaba type: ix c(1)82 (original mastaba): 8.5 x 5.25 m, n. face finished only for 0.7 m on east rubble wall continues westward, preserved for 2.7 m83,
area 44.62 sq. m
addition on north [= G2095′] of type ix c(1), 5.7 x 4.3 m, area 24.51 sq. m;
total area: 69.13 sq. m;
facing masonry type: [u];
G2096
Mastaba type: xi c(1); an addition to G2093 4.85 x 6.25 m; total area: 30.31 sq. m; height about 2.68 m; facing masonry type: [u];
G2097
The tomb of NIMAATRE;
Mastaba type: viii c, three different sections, extending 16.5 m E–W [includes 2097′], west part [decorated room]: 6.15 x 5.9 m; area 36.28 sq. m, center part [court; includes serdabs]: 7.15 x 5.95 m; area 42.54 sq.m, east part [= 2097′]: 7.55 x 4.3 m; area 32.46 sq. m total area: 111.28, facing masonry type: [u].
G2098
The tomb of NEFER-KHUWI;
Mastaba type: x c: 12.2–13.0 x 5.15–5.35 m106, total area: 66.15 sq. m, facing masonry type: [u];
Chapel type: (11c): recess s. of middle of E. face: 2.85 x 1.9 m, area 51.41 sq. m; relation 1/1.2.
G2099
The tomb of RARAMU;
Mastaba type: viii c(1): 9.6–14.3121 x 7.4–7.2122 m, area 87.14123 sq. m; proportion 1/1.62124, facing masonry type: [u—east wall of mastaba facade];
Chapel type: (10b).
G2230
Mastaba type: vii a(1): 12.2 x 7.7 m; area 92.93 sq. m; proportion 1/1.65; height near 1.8 m, facing masonry type: w;
Chapel type: (4b).
G2231
Mastaba type: x c(1): 11 x 5.5 m, area 60.5 sq. m; proportion 1/2; height 1.8 m, facing masonry type: u-masonry with some large blocks;
Chapel type: (9c).
G2240
The tomb of NEFERMESDJER-KHUFU;
Mastaba type: vii c(1): 10.3 x 8.0 m; area 82.4 sq. m; proportion 1/1.28, facing masonry type: u.
Chapel type: (4b): 3.4 x 1.35 m; area 4.59 sq. m; proportion 1/2.51.
Shaft a: 1.6 x 1.6 m; 1.25 m lined with masonry topped with rubble; -2.15 m in rock, but the floor of the chamber is -3.185 m below the bedrock surface, reached by three steps;
chamber type: 5 a(4) on north. 2.25 x 1.75 m; 1.2 m to the sloping roof; area 3.83 sq. m; capacity 4.59 cu. m.