Малый некрополь Cem3000 Западного поля Большого некрополя Гизы располагается западнее и севернее некрополя Cem1200.

Состоит из малых мастаб расположенных приблизительно в шести отклоняющихся от направления SN к востоку рядах.
Two distinct mastabas. The earlier one, at the south, was of type IIb, debris filling with rubble facing and stepped stone casing. Size, 510×380 cm., orientated due north. The sequence in construction was not quite clear. Just south of this mastaba was another with multiple arrangement of shafts. The shaft called A of G3000 was clearly built against the north face of this, but could not have formed part of the scheme of G3000 as it lay partly outside the liens of the core.
While the whole structure was badly wrecked by stone thieves, it appeared probable that the shafts, B and C, with the mud plastered retaining wall at least, composed one mastaba earlier than that to the south. A was cut later and the stepped stone casing was then added or rebuilt so as to include the whole
structure, the casing walls built against those of the south mastaba. The only niche on the east facade was a shallow stela opposite shaft A. On the west side the casing had been stripped off to make room for the offering room of G3010.

The second mastaba was of type Ia, debris filling with brick facings, and was built against the stone casing of the first mastaba and apparently after the casing had been removed from the north side. In PI. 11:4 is shown the northeast corner of the first mastaba. Inside is the mud plastered angle of the core. At the left a remnant of the stone casing with debris filled in between it and the core. At the right is the end of the brick mastaba. The east facade of the second mastaba had two niches, a double one at the south opposite shaft D and a single at the north opposite E. Only these two shafts existed. It may have been the intention to have a third shaft in the addition, west of E, but no cutting was made in the rock, and only a few bricks remained of any division wall. The upper part of the outer wall west of E had been repaired with rough rubble, probably the backing of the dressed facing slabs of the  part of the offering room of G3010.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone facing. Size 710extN(930)x400 cm., orientated almost due north. Most of the facing had been stripped off. On the east facade was a double niche stele, opposite shaft B. At the north was an addition in the same type extending the length to 930 cm. The offering room although practically entirely destroyed, was of the corridor type, with its entrance at the north, the south end shut off by a wall connecting this mastaba with G3092.

In the original structure were three shafts, A to C, and in the addition D and E. On the west a later shaft X was sunk between this mastaba and G3012. In the sand above the main structure was a small unfinished limestone bowl, 9.5 cm. in
Mastaba, type III, constructed wholly of dark gray brick, 40x20x15 cm. with some 34x17x12 cm. on the east face. Size, 790×340 cm., orientated due north.
The east facade had a row of four double and two single niches alternating.

A fragment of a wall of the offering space was near the south end. Four shafts, A to D.
Mastaba, type III, built throughout of brick, 40 x 19 x 12 cm. Size 530 x 320 cm., and orientated slightly E. of N. A double offering room consisting of an inner chamber, the real offering room, and an outer vestibule with its door to the north.

The two were connected by a passage 180 cm. long. These chambers filled the space between this mastaba and the rear of G3096. Both rooms with the connecting passage had been roofed with a smooth barrel vault of brick, not reeded. The whole of the exterior and interior had been coated with a thick layer of yellowish plaster.
Two shafts.
Mastaba, type III, constructed entirely of bricks, those in the faces of the walls dark gray 40 x 20 x 16 cm., while inside the wall were 24 x 12×9 cm. brown bricks. The latter were re-used from an earlier mastaba. The east facade at least was plastered and then finished with white stucco. Opposite the main shaft A
was a large double niche. Over the inner part was a log lintel with the name KHUFU-MER-NETERU.
A. Shaft: 175 x 150 cm. and 745 cm. deep, lined with brick.
Chamber at west, 170×155 cm. and 140 cm. high, its
floor 45 cm. above the bottom of the shaft.
G 3005
Mastaba, type IIa, debris filling with rubble retaining wall, and casing of brick. Size 1010×490 cm.,
orientated 12°E of N. There were three stages of construction. The original structure was planned to contain, within the core, the three shafts, A to C, and a small cubicle F (a serdab?).

The linings of the shafts had been begun with brownish bricks, 32 x 16.5 x 10 cm. They were then finished with mud plastered rubble, except A, which was finished with bricks 36 x 17 x 14cm.. Before the casing wall was finished two more shafts, D and E, were added at the south end and these were then enclosed within the casing wall. This wall was begun with bricks like those in the shafts, which constitute the lowest nine courses. Above this, the wall was finished with dark gray bricks, 34-36 x 18×13 cm. In PI. 14:2 the northwest corner of the original core, with the brick casing, can be seen at the inner end of the row of shafts. Finally several of the shafts were repaired with various sizes of bricks, some 36 x 17 x 14 cm., and in A were some 27 x 14×8 cm.—these evidently taken from some earlier structure. In the casing around the added shafts, the lower part was built with 34 x 17 x 11 cm. bricks, practically the same as those in the other parts of the wall, while above were the larger gray bricks. The outer walls had a batter of 85° and were plastered with yellow mortar..
A. Shaft: 97 x 125 cm. and 555 cm. deep, lined with brick. At 150 cm. from the bottom the shaft was narrowed on the east side by a ledge 52 cm. wide.
Not a mastaba, but a single shaft 95 x 88 cm. and 180 cm. deep, with enclosing walls built in the space between mastabas
G3088 and G3005. The lowest five courses were of bricks 35 x 17 x 12 cm., while above were dark gray bricks, 44 x 20 x 13 cm..
Mastaba, type III, constructed wholly of dark gray bricks, 30 x 15 x 10 cm., very sandy in texture. Some of the shafts were patched with rubble. Orientated 12° 30′ E. of N. Along the east facade so far as it was cleared, were alternate double and single niches. Each of the double niches had a log lintel over the inner part with a plain flat lintel above it. The walls were plastered with mud and then covered with white stucco.
A row of shafts on main axis, of which four were cleared. The mastaba extended beyond the northern limits of the excavation.
A. Shaft: 1oo x 1oo cm. and 555 cm. deep, lined with brick.
Chamber at west, 139 x 155 cm. and 110 cm. high. Found
unsealed and empty.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. This mastaba showed three stages of development. The first structure was built against the north and part of the west side of G3005 and was planned from the first to have the offering room included in the body of the structure. Size 820 x 755 cm.,
including offering room and final brick casing. Orientated 11° 30′ E. of N.

The north side and probably also the west and south sides, although these were concealed under a later brick casing, had a stepped casing of local limestone. This stepped casing existed also on the east outside the offering room. The
offering room was lined with irregularly coursed fine white limestone, dressed with a batter of 85°. Built into this were two double niche blocks, each in one piece. The south end wall was vertical and the east wall was intended also to be so, but at the south end it inclined slightly inward. The floor at the north end was natural rock, but farther south was of slabs of stone laid on rubble and debris to level up the sloping surface. The chamber was roofed with slabs well fitted together. The walls were coated with a smooth hard layer of pinkish plaster, then finished with white. On this were painted funerary scenes, and inscriptions.
A. Shaft: 100 x 90 cm. and 420 cm.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Size, 815 x 320 cm. orientated slightly E. of N.  The stone casing on the east was not laid in regular courses, but was dressed to a batter of 84°. There were three niches, a double one near the south end opposite the serdab S and two single ones opposite shaft B. All were cut in single blocks.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Size, 800 x 780 cm. orientated due north. This mastaba was apparently planned to include the offering room and the shafts E and F in the original scheme, as the stepped casing was continuous around the west, south and east. It was later than both G3012 and G3021, and the end of the former was used as one side of the entrance door.

The offering room had a recess at the south end. The east wall of this room was vertical while the west wall of coursed masonry was battered. No faces were, however, dressed smooth. The entrance door opened to the east near the northern end of the room. The recess at the south end was afterward used as the chamber for a later burial Y and a wall built across the south end of the offering room to form its entrance shaft. This division wall was of rough dressed blocks resting on a rubble filling over the floor of the old offering room.
The walls of the offering room were laid in pinkish plaster and covered with pinkish stucco. There were two niches, a double one at the south end opposite the serdab, and a single one at the north. A narrow window W opened from the center of the double niche into the serdab, which was roofed with two slabs.
A. Shaft: 97 x 107 cm. and 735 cm. deep, lined with rubble.
Two chambers, 1 at west, with its floor 337 cm below the rock surface, and II at east, its floor 40 cm. below the bottom of the shaft.
Chamber, 128×70 cm. and 95 cm. high.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Size, 640 x 280 cm., orientated 1° 30′ E of N. On the east facade a break in the masonry opposite the serdab S probably contained a niche stele.

The serdab was faced with rough dressed blocks and one slab of the roof was in situ. The rear wall of the mastaba had a recess forming part of the offering room of G3021. Whether this had been left by the builders of G3012 or cut away by the builders of G3021 was not clear.
Three shafts, B to D.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Orientated 3° 30′ E. of N.

The original structure included the shaft A only. Later B was added at the north, the lines of the east and west facades being carefully maintained. Opposite A apparently had been a niche stela.
ShaftA: 90×92 cm. and 450 cm. deep, lined with brick 36 x 18 x 11 cm. Chamber at south, 156 x 158 cm. and 82 cm. high, extending partly along east side.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. This was a further extension of G3013 (q.v.) and was the final enlargement. The east facade was lined up with that of G3013 and dressed down to a smooth surface. A corridor offering room was built along the whole combined length of G3013-14.
The rear wall of G3002 and the corner of G3003 were faced with smoothed stonework to form its walls and it doubtless had a slab roof. The stepped casing of the last period was evidently intended to continue along the rear wall, to make the structure the same uniform width, but this was never carried
beyond the limits of the latest addition.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Irregular shape, 590 cm. long and narrowing from 255 cm. at the south end to 210 cm. at the north. The plan was entirely determined by the mastabas around it. On the east was a small double niche in one block at the south end.
Under the mastaba, at this point, was an unfinished shaft in the rock. A was a shaft and chamber wholly in the superstructure,
while B, placed askew at the north end, was the main shaft.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Size, 880×470 cm., orientated 2° E of N.

The space between this mastaba and G3010 was utilized for a corridor offering room, with its door at the south. The shafts were grouped in multiple but without any regularity. Near the north end of the offering roam were two later shafts X and Y, of which no superstructure remained.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling faced with brown bricks, 37x15x10 cm.

Portions of the shafts were rubble. Size 825×430 cm., orientated due north. The exterior was plastered with mud mortar and had a batter of 83° 25′. On the east facade were three niches, one double between two single ones.
A niche stela had been opposite A, in a break in the masonry.
This had rested on a broad stone ledge. The offering room was of the corridor type with a recess extending into the rear of G3012.
There were four shafts A to D arranged on the main axis.
Mastaba, type II, debris filling with rubble retaining wall. Never cased. Size, 560 x 320 cm., orientated 4° E. of N. Three shafts, all lined with rubble and
never sunk below rock surface.
Mastaba, IIb, debris filling with rubble retaining wall and stepped stone casing. Only the lowest course of this remained. Size, 320×340 cm., orientated 1o° E of N. Four shafts, arranged in multiple.

A. Shaft: 80 x 105 cm. and 485 cm. deep, lined with rubble.
Two chambers, both on the west.
Mastaba, type III, constructed wholly of brick 28 x 15 x 9 cm. The main structure was 490 x 305 cm., orientated 23°E of N. On the east facade were two double and two single niches. That at the south had been constructed with stone, laid in several courses with small blocks. This face had originally been finished with a hard pinkish white stucco. The niche a extended above the spring of the reeded vaulting so that it was clear that the offering room as finally
constructed was not part of the original scheme. It was of bricks, 25 x 13 x 9 cm., and the joint between it. The reeded barrel vault was
built of rectangular bricks 28 x 15 x 9/2 cm., the exposed edge rounded to form the reeding. The string course below the vault was molded in the mud plaster with a slight projection from the face of the wall. The whole interior of the offering room was plastered with a thick layer of mud finished with white stucco.
Not properly a mastaba, but a series of late burials built one against the other along the rear wall of G3005. Of these A and B form the earliest group, with bricks 35 x 17 x 11.5 cm.
C and D were later, with bricks 36 x 19 x 12 cm. E may have been the entrance shaft to the burial chamber north of it, instead of D. The division wall between E and F was of plastered rubble. None was sunk below the rock surface.
An extension of G3035 of type IIb, debris filling with rubble retaining wall, mud plastered, and with stepped stone casing. Only the lowest course of casing remained, orientated 1o° E of N. Ca. 70 cm. inside the east facade was a fragment of an earlier casing with a slightly different orientation and belonging to a mastaba of type Ib. This mastaba had been destroyed by G3035, while G3026 was subsequent to G3035. The only burial was in the core of the G3026.
Mastaba, type IIa, debris filling enclosed by a well built retaining wall, composed for the most part of roughly squared stones but begun, however, with rubble. Size, 2480 x 1150 cm., orientated slightly W of E.

The batter of the retaining wall, where exposed on the east side, was 82° 30′. The core was cased with brick, 170 cm. thick on the east, south and north, and apparently only half this thickness on the west. The lowest five to seven courses of this facing were built of bricks 44 x 22 x 18 cm., while above these were bricks 40 x 20 x 15 cm. The batter varied; 81° 30′ on the south face, 83° 5′ on the west (rear) face and 84° 5′ on the east (niched) face. On the east facade were three double niches, two of them of large size.

Near the south end the brick casing was omitted to make a small offering room 290 cm. long, the retaining wall forming its inner wall. It may have been the intention to place here a large niche of stone, but this was never done. A rough wall of rubble, with a small opening at its north end, was built later across the open side. Behind this chamber were the remains of a serdab, which had been wrecked.
The mastaba contained three shafts, A to C, arranged on the main axis.
A. Shaft: 125 x 125 cm. and 750 cm. deep, tapering to 100 x 110 cm. at bottom. Lined with brick which, for at least a distance of 55 cm. above the
rock, appeared to have been covered with coarse plaster. Chamber at west, widening from 155 cm. at door to 245 cm. at inner end. Length 180 cm., and height
120 cm. The door had been sealed with bricks 40 x 21 x 10 cm., the two bottom rows laid as headers. In the chamber were sand and bits of dried grass, and the chamber had evi- dently been opened in very recent years.
B. Shaft: 230 x 200 cm. and 1740 cm. deep, lined with coarse rubble laid without mud mortar to a height of 150 cm. above the rock surface, thence to top with brick. The rock portion tapered to 136 x 121 cm. at the bottom. Chamber at the south 272 x 295 cm. and 15 5 cm. high. The door was the full width of the
shaft and 100 cm. high. From the shaft a short passage 105 cm. long, its floor 45 cm. below the bottom of the shaft, led to the chamber. Near the chamber, the roof had a drop of 21 cm. The floor of the chamber was 25 cm. lower than that of the passage, a short unevenly cut incline connecting the two. The floor of the western part of the chamber was covered to a depth of 25-35 cm with limestone chips, forming a sort of ledge on which lay the body.
ShaftC: 175 x 180 cm. and 1030 cm. deep, lined with rubble for 110 cm. above rock, thence to top with brick. Rock portion tapered to 124 x 106 cm. at. Bowl from B  bottom. Chamber at south, widening from 94 cm. at door to 105 cm. at inner end. Length 225 cm. and height 140 cm. The door had slight offsets at the sides.
The chamber was to have been sunk deeper, as in B.
Found unsealed and empty.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stone casing, with rough convex faces and not stepped. Size, 815×200 cm., orientated slightly W of N. A stepped wall was built across the northern end of the space between this mastaba and G3021, to enclose an offering room. There were no niches, but at the southern end was a serdab S (?) 160×67 cm. and 85 cm. deep, lined with rubble and brick. The serdab and the three shafts were built against the sloping face of G3030.
B. Shaft: 122 x 110 cm. and 770 cm. deep, lined with rubble.
In the debris at the bottom of shaft was a limestone lintel block with a painted inscription.
Chamber at south, 200 x 160 cm. and 140 cm. high. floor was ca. 15 cm. above the bottom of shaft. The door was cut the full width of shaft and then narrowed
by a jamb 48 cm. wide and 35 cm. thick, built of roughly squared blocks laid in pinkish plaster. The sealing of door was rubble, still in situ for a height of 64 cm. In floor of chamber was a pit 156 x 63 cm. and 50 cm. deep.
Covered with three slabs, one still in situ.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. A single shaft built against the south side of G3033.

No niche and a small space on the east side between this mastaba and G3022 served as an open offering room.
Shaft: 11o x 112 cm. and 535 cm. deep, decreasing to 102×102 cm. at bottom. Lined with rubble. Two chambers, I at west and II at south.
I. Chamber at west, 107 x 108 cm. and 90 cm. high, the floor 195 cm. below the rock surface. Found unsealed. In the floor a pit, 107 x 55 cm. and 25 cm. deep.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facing. Size, including room, 1050×765 cm., orientated 7° 30′ E. of N. The tomb of the priest SAB-EF. This
was the best example of the corridor-recess type of plan, as the whole structure was built according to one scheme and never reconstructed or enlarged. The walls were of bricks, 29 x 15 x 9 cm. The interior was divided into compartments E to J by tie walls and these spaces were afterward used for intrusive burials, sometimes being refaced with bricks 38 x 19 x 17 cm.

The shafts belonging to the original structure were A and D. The exterior walls were battered 74° 30′ on the west, 82° 30′ on the east. The niched facade was 75 ° 20′. Here were a series of four double and three single niches, not regularly alternating as there was a smaller double niche next to a larger one in the
center of the facade. In front of this smaller niche was a low ledge for offerings. The two southern niches had lintels, flat and log of limestone with inscriptions. The other double niches had had merely flat roughly worked stone lintels.
The offering room was the corridor type with a recess at the south end. The walls were built against, i.e., after the main structure but this was simply to facilitate the construction and was not a later idea. The walls of’the offering room were vertical inside, except the niched face. The recess was covered
by a low arch in line with the east wall of the corridor.
The entire corridor portion had a barrel vault with reeded ceiling. For the courses of this special bricks were designed with interlocking ends. One course of the walls projected as a string course. From it sprang the arch which, owing to the batter of the niched wall, had here a span of 125 cm. The long edges
were flat and the ends tapered from the outside to allow for the curve. The opposite ends were molded with projections and corresponding insets so that adjoining bricks could be fitted one into the other. The inner edges were molded to form half only of the full reeding. This would have required two molds, one the reverse of the other, in order to make the full curve. However, only one shape was made and the result obtained by reversing the alternate courses. Thus one course was laid as shown in Fig. 107, while the adjoining one was laid with the projecting ends pointing the opposite way. Interlocking bricks, in order to fit perfectly, must be designed for the particular radius of the arch for which they are intended. These builders realized this to a certain extent,
probably after experiment, but they evidently did not have the means of laying out the design so as to be assured of a perfect joint. As a result the bricks had to be scraped away to fit during the progress of building. Large wedge-shaped spaces between the ends were unavoidable, and these were chinked up with pebbles and mud. The trouble involved may be one reason why the innovation was not used more extensively.
All the other vaults found in this part of the cemetery were of common bricks, with only one edge rounded off for the reeding.
At the spring of the vault the ends of the bricks were set in mud mortar with plenty of pebbles mixed in it. Above the interlocking bricks was one course of ordinary bricks. The horizontal courses were carried to this and the irregular spaces.Tiled in with mud and small stones.
A. Shaft: 115×105 cm. and 575 cm. deep, lined with brick. Chamber at south, 205 x 143 cm. at door, narrowing to 108 cm., and 130 cm. high with the floor
15 cm. below the bottom of the shaft. The door had been sealed with roughly squared limestone blocks of which three remained in situ, laid in pinkish plaster.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with facing of bricks, 24 x 12×7 cm., except in the west wall; there they were 25 x 11 x q cm. Size, 775 x 425 cm., orientated 6° 30′ E of N. Most of the filling had been removed and also the lining of the one shaft. South of the latter was a portion of a cross wall tying the exterior walls together. On the east facade were two double niches, one at the south and the other near the north. The latter was partly covered by the stone casing of G3035 which extended over the north end.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facing. Size, 11oo x 520 cm., exclusive of offering room, orientated 1o° E of N. The east face was of bricks, 35 x 17 x
12.5 cm., plastered with a batter of 83°. In it was a large double niche near the south end with a limestone inscribed lintel. Below it on the floor was a double
basin, uninscribed. Two single niches and a recess near north.
A. Shaft: 100 x 100 cm. and 574 cm. deep, lined with rubble.
Two chambers, both on west side.
Mastaba, showing two stages in construction. Originally planned to include only the shafts A and B and begun in type Ia, debris filling faced with bricks 28 x 14×9 cm. Before the work had advanced very far the shafts C to F were added at the south end and the work continued in type IIa, the filling enclosed by a rubble wall and the brick facing continued as a casing wall with bricks 36 x 18 x 12 cm. The four additional shafts were included in the new casing wall. The line of demarcation between the smaller bricks and the larger bricks was very clearly traced through the structure, at a height of ca. 125 cm. above the rock level. The exterior faces had a batter of 83°40′ on the north, 840 on the west, 830 on the south and 840 10′ on the east. All plastered with mud. On the east facade were three double and two single niches alternating. The offering room was the corridor type with a larger space at the south end.
These simply utilized the space available west and south of G3033. The large space was divided into two by a slight wall and the whole offering structure was not massive enough to support anything but a roof of light beams covered with mats and mud. Against the north end of the main structure was a
small mastaba (?) with two single niches on its east facade.
It was badly denuded, and may have been part of the original core of G3036. In this case it must have been decided to extend the mastaba toward the south for the sake of the offering room area, and this part at the north was abandoned. It contained no shaft. The two original shafts were on the main axis but those in the extension were in multiple.
A. Shaft: 120 x 117 cm. and 525 cm. deep, lined with bricks for 125 cm. above the rock surface, thence to top with rubble. Chamber at west, 90×165 cm. and 125 cm. high. Found unsealed.
Mastaba, type lb, debris filling with stepped stone casing, but finished on east with bricks, 37.5 x 19.5 x 13 cm. Size, 335 x 240 cm., orientated 8° E of N. On
the east facade were one double and one single niche. One shaft. At the south was a small square structure with debris filling and a facing of bricks 37.5 x 19.5 x 13 cm. This had two single niches, but no shaft. It was separated from G3037 by a small space, which was afterward used for the intrusive burial X.
Mastaba, type la, debris filling with brick facing. The bricks in the lower seven courses were 37 x 18 x 16 cm. and above 32 x 17 x 13 cm. Orientated slightly W of N. Only the east facade and part of the north wall were excavated. There were two double niches and two single ones laternating. The whole surface had been mud plastered and stuccoed white. Afterward was added a second thin layer of gray plaster with another finishing coat of white. In the debris over the north end was a roughly worked flint. In the unfinished later shaft X, were a number of the small model offering vessels, of the same shape as those found south of G3030, and also of the two shapes shown in Fig. 119.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Size, 760 x 330 cm., orientated slightly W. of N.

and the east face set back ca. 10 cm. from that of G3040.
At the north end, a wall of stepped masonry connected it with the rear wall of G 3030 to enclose the offering space. There were two niches, a double one opposite A and a single one opposite D. The four shafts were on the main axis.
A. Shaft: 130 x 120 cm. and 550 cm. deep, lined with roughly dressed and coursed masonry. Where the haft entered the rock, it was narrowed by a ledge on
the east and north sides. Chamber at east, 220 x 130 cm. and 118 cm. high, with a door 30 cm. deep. Sealed with rough stones and blocks, with no mortar.
Mastaba, probably type Ia, debris filling with brick facing. Orientated 8° 30′ E. of N. (B 1-2 on Plan 1). It had a series of alternate double and single niches. The offering room was at the south end, but this had been reconstructed and two additional double niches, one set back in a recess, were built, half filling the original room.
Mastaba, probably type Ia, with bricks on east face, 40 x 20 x 16 cm., plastered with batter of 83° 40′. Orientated 8° E of N. One double niche at south and
two single ones nearer the north end. The space between this and G3037 was used for an offering room and a brick jamb at the southwest corner of the latter constructed to form a door.
Mastaba, not cleared, probably type Ia, faced with bricks, 30 x 15 x 10 cm., orientated as G3044, which it preceded.
Mastaba, probably of type Ia. The bricks in east face were 32 x 16 x 11 cm. There was one large recess which may have contained a stone stele. An offering room, clearly a reconstruction, was built around the southwest end of G3042, of dark gray bricks 35 x 16×11 cm.
Mastaba, type IIb, debris filling with mud plastered rubble.
Retaining walls and stepped stone casing. The latter had almost entirely been stripped off.
Size approximately 465 x 285 cm., orientated 2° E. of N.
One shaft only, at south end.
Shaft: 80 x 90 cm. and 450 cm. deep, lined with mud plastered rubble. The shaft widened slightly at bottom. Chamber at west, 90 x 100 cm. widening to
120 cm. at the west, and 90 cm. high. Irregular and apparently never finished.
Mastaba, Type III, built of brick, except for the division wall between the two shafts which was of rubble. Size, 450 x 260 cm., orientated due N. Two shafts on main axis.
A. Shaft: 115 x 110 cm. and 335 cm. deep, lined with brick, rubble on north. Mud plastered. Chamber at west.
The door was 100 cm. wide with slight offsets at sides. The south jamb was 40 cm. thick but the walls of the room were not cut more than 25 cm. south of the opening.
B. Shaft: 100×95 cm. and 370 cm. deep, lined with brick, except rubble on south side. Chamber at west, 125 x 120 cm. and 90 cm. high. Rough and uneven and probably left unfinished as in A. Found unsealed.
Mastaba, Type IIb, debris filling with mud plastered rubble retaining wall and stepped stone casing, of which portions remained along the three sides cleared. Size, 690 x ? cm., orientated 2° W of N. This mastaba may be a reconstruction of a larger one which included the shaft X at the north. The final mud plastered retaining wall and a fragment of the stepped facing extended over a portion of rubble facing on the south side of shaft X. This shaft, however, was on the same axis as A to C.
A. Shaft: 110 x n o cm. and 430 cm. deep, lined with mud plastered rubble. Chamber at west, 145 cm. wide at door increasing to 155 cm. at west, x 85 cm. and 65 cm. high. Found unsealed.
Mastaba, begun as Type IIb, debris filling and stepped stone casing. Finished with brick core and stepped stone casing.
Size 550×350 cm., orientated 2° 30′ W of N.
Six shafts in multiple system.
Mastaba, Type III, built of dark gray bricks, 36x18x 11.5 cm., laid in yellowish sandy mud mortar. Enlarged to final size, 8.10×3.65 m. Orientated 8° E. of N. The original shafts were B to D.
On the east facade were two double niches with a single one between them. The west and east faces had a batter of 85° 30′ and 85°15′ respectively and the exterior of the brick portion was plastered with a heavy coat of yellowish mortar, a mixture of mud, sand and straw. Later the mastaba was increased by the addition of E at the northern end, built of bricks, 34 x 16 x 12 cm. The east facade of this new work was faced with stone in which was a shallow niche stele. This was set back from the line of the older face. At this time the offering room was rebuilt as a corridor type, utilizing the space between G3081 and 3082.
This was probably roofed. The north end of the room destroyed the southern end of G3087 and the coursed stone wall runs
over shaft A of the latter. Still later an intrusive burial A was placed in a shaft cut in the original brick core and relined with bricks, 42x18x14 cm. Another intrusive burial, X, was placed in the corner made by the south wall of G3081 and the extension around it of the ante-room of G3094.
B. Shaft: 100 x 100 cm. and 400 cm. deep, lined with bricks, repaired with rubble. Chamber at west, 115×60 cm., and 70 cm. high. Found unsealed.
Mastaba, Type IIb, debris and small loose rubble filling with stepped stone cutting. Size, 10.15 x 3.90 (S. end) and 3.50 m. (N. end), orientated 3° 30′ E of N. On east facade a shallow niche stele.

In the debris over the adjoining mastaba, G3071, was a large stone offering basin, which may have belonged fo this offering room.
Near south end, opposite shaft A, the facing was broken away.
Another niche stele had -been built in here but later removed by stone thieves. On the western face near south end was a vertical offset 240 cm. wide, which appeared to be part of the offering room of G3081 or of an earlier mastaba which had
been replaced by the brick mastaba G2081. There were three shafts A-C and in the space between this mastaba and 2071 was an intrusive burial X.
A. Shaft: 95 x 78 cm. and 313 cm. deep,
Mastaba, originally type III but with several reconstructions. The original mastaba built against the south side of G3084, was 430 x 290 cm., orientated 6°
E of N. Built solidly of brick, 38 x 21 x 13 cm. Along the east facade were four niches. That at the south end was a large double niche. Then a small double niche (worked out in mud plaster) between two single niches. The shafts E and F belonged to this structure. The first extension was 170×320 cm. and built of
rough rubble, with mud plastered surfaces.
This contained shafts B and C.
Still later another rubble extension on the south added an additional 260 cm. to the length. It consisted of a single enclosure, in which was
shaft Y. At this time a new offering room was built along the whole east facade, with walls of rubble. The door was near the north end.
Mastaba, type IIb, debris filling with rubble retaining wall, but not cased. Size, 700×425 cm., apparently extending farther
toward the north under the unexcavated area. Orientated 7° E of N. The original structure contained at least three shafts, A to C. On the east front was a chamber M, 255 cm.long, probably intended for the original offering room. Outside of this was later built a facade of bricks, 39 x 18 x 12 cm., with two double niches. An offering room N, of brick 30 x 13 x 9 cm. was built against this new face, and the chamber M then became the serdab.
A. Shaft: 95 x 92 cm. and 625 cm. deep, lined with mudplastered rubble. Chamber at south, 100 x 102 cm. and 80 cm. high. Found unsealed and empty.
B. Shaft: 100 x 105 cm. and 400 cm. deep, lined with mudplastered rubble. Chamber at north, 150X 220 cm. and 120 cm. high. Found unsealed.
Mastaba, type Ib, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Size, 915 x 440 cm., orientated 3° E of N.
On east face six to eight courses of the casing were preserved.

Near the north end a small offering recess, O, was built in the core and lined with vertical walls of finely dressed and coursed limestone. In the west wall of this was a shallow double niche cut in a single block. On the main east facade were also a single and a double niche, built into the coursed masonry with the proportions of mud brick niches. In both of them the fifth course of casing served as the lintel of the niche.
The main offering room was of the corridor type and occupied the space between this mastaba and G3083 to the east. Walls of coursed masonry were built at the north and south ends of this, leaving a door at the south end of the east facade. The north wall was built against an earlier brick wall, d, which extended out from the rear wall of the original G3083.
The eastern side of the offering room was faced with limestone built partly into the rear face of G3083. Probably roofed with slabs.
The original structure contained four shafts, A to D, of which only A to C were completed. D was sunk only a short distance into the rock and may have been utilized as the serdah behind the offering chamber. Later an intrusive burial X was sunk in the north end of the corridor and a brick wall a was built across the opening into the recess and another across the corridor to enclose the new shaft.
Mastaba, type III, of gray bricks, 26x12x8.5 cm. It was purposed to enclose the mastaba with a stepped stone casing, but this was begun on the west side only and then completed with brick.

Size, 600 x 260 cm., orientated 5° E. of N. Built in the angle formed by G3084, G3085 and a stone cased mastaba to the north not excavated. The offering room was of the corridor type with a recess M at the southern end. The latter, however, was built because of the space available. The corridor extended the whole length of the mastaba and around the north end where was the entrance. The east facade had a series of single and double niches. In front of one of the small single niches was the offering basin of Ruwz . Just outside the north end of the corridor was a small serdab S, 80 x 93 cm. and 75 cm. high with white stuccoed walls and roofed with slabs. In this was the offering basin of MHSAT, the wife of Ruwz.
Mastaba, type III. The original structure was of brick, and 350 x 230 cm. in size, orientated 6° E of N. On the east facade were two double niches, with rough stone slabs as lintels. The whole surface was plastered with mud mortar and then finished with white stucco.

This structure contained the two shafts A and C. The south end of the mastaba was destroyed during the erection of G3081 and possibly G3082 and the stone facing wall of the offering room of G3081 was built across the top of shaft A. Later two shafts, B and D, were added to the east face ot the original structure. These were built of rubble and a thin facing in this material was carried around the north end of the brick mastaba. This new addition was built against the north end of G3082. The two old niches appeared in the west sides of the new shafts. Still later an intrusive burial X ( = E) was placed between D and the walls of the final reconstruction of the
offering room of G3083.
A. Shaft: 104 x 106 cm. and 420 cm. deep, lined with brick but repaired later (possibly at the time the rubble addition was erected) with rubble. Chamber at south, 135 x 90 cm. and 90 cm. high. Found unsealed.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facing walls. Size 615×410 cm. exclusive of addition, and orientated 14° E of N. This mastaba was built between
G3097 and the earliest (i.e., western) portion of G3098. At its northern end the north side of shaft D was the already existing face of G3098. The joint between its southern end and G3097 was nearly vertical and it may be that the face of the latter was cut away somewhat when G3088 was being built.
The east facade had quite a different orientation from the two adjoining mastabas, which were the same. The bricks were yellowish sandy clay, 40 x 20 x 15 cm. One double niche was visible opposite shaft A. Against the east facade an addition of dark gray bricks 42 x 20 x 15 cm. was built later. This did not contain any shafts, and its purpose was not clear. It was built before the addition to G3098 was erected, as the south side of B of the latter was the face of G3088. A much denuded wall enclosed the visible niche. This wall was apparently the latest offering wall as it was built outside the face of the addition.
Four shafts, A-D, on the main axis, almost in line with those of mastaba G3097.
A. Shaft: 95 x 95 cm. and 430 cm. deep, lined with mud plastered rubble. Chamber at west, 130×101 cm. and 110 cm. high. Found unsealed.
Mastaba, type 1b, debris filling with stepped stone casing. Size, 705 x 290 cm. orientated the same as the series of large mastabas of the Fourth Dynasty lying to the east.

It was built to fill the space between the westernmost of these, G1227, and a similar mastaba of practically the same date, the original G3091-2. The rear wall of the new mastaba was built against the face of the latter, while a space was left along the east for a corridor type offering room. The space available was just sufficient to include in the mastaba a row of shafts and this offering room. The stepped stone casing was carried all around the main structure, but while on the exterior walls the courses were set back ca. 5 cm. each, in the wall of the offering room the offsets were 2 cm. only, and several of the courses were set flush. In the corridor was a shallow triple niche in one block built into the masonry. The offering chamber was 197 cm. high and roofed with slabs ca. 22 cm. thick.
One end of these rested on a ledge of the stepped courses of the large Fourth Dynasty mastaba. It had been intended originally to have four shafts, but one had been used for the chamber of shaft A. At the northern end of the offering chamber two pits had been begun in the rock, but were sunk only slightly below the chamber floor. Outside of the tomb just to the left of the door was a shaft to which belonged the fragmentary rubble wall to the west.
Mastaba, type IIb, debris filling with rubble retaining wall and stepped stone casing. The original rubble faced core a was ca 810 cm wide. This was increased
by a layer of rubble b ca 80-90 cm thick. Outside of this was built the casing c.

This mastaba had been badly denuded, and a later mastaba G3092, built over its northern end, a small mastaba against its south end, and all but the lowest courses of the stepped casing torn off to be re-used in later mastabas. The original size was approximately 1800 x 1070 cm., orientated the same as the series of Fourth Dynasty mastabas to the east to which it was closely linked in point of time. Two shafts may be identified as belonging to this mastaba, that described below and the shaft A of G3092, which was incorporated in that mastaba, but probably belonged to the earlier one.
A. Shaft: 160 x 150 cm., decreasing to 125 x 125 cm. at the bottom and 980 cm. deep. Lined with mud plastered rubble but patched just above the rock. Chamber at south, 210 x 1.18 cm. and 140 cm. high. It had been sealed with rubble. The rock stratum here was very poor, and during the cutting of the chamber a considerable portion of rock had fallen. The more dangerous parts had been picked loose by the workmen, as the pick marks on the irregular roof indicate. The debris had been removed before the burial took place.
Mastaba, type IIa, as completed, debris core with rubble retaining wall and mud brick casing 790 x 1050 cm., the east facade orientated same as the Fourth Dynasty series.

Built over the northern part of G3091, the brick casing continuing the face of the few remaining courses of stone casing of the latter. The method of reconstruction over the original core is shown in PI. 11:3. The old rubble faced cores a and b of G3091 were removed where not required for the new structure. The exposed face was patched and plastered with mud. On the lowest casing stones c the new casing d was built. The bricks used in the casing wall were 34 x 17 x 11 cm. The surface was plastered with gray mud, over which was a layer of yellower stucco and a final coat of white stucco. The finished face had a batter of 82° 25′. On the east facade were two large double niches in the brickwork.
A small offering chamber was formed opposite the south niche by building a brick wall 90 cm. thick in line with the south facade, to the large Fourth Dynasty mastaba. The north wall of the room was only 50 cm. thick, with a door, the east jamb built against the stepped face of the Fourth Dynasty mastaba.
The room was lighted by a small window near the ceiling line in the same wall. The opening on the outer face was 39 x 23 cm., and the sill sloped down into the room an additional 46 cm. The lintel was a flat stone slightly concave on the underside. Later a second chamber was added enclosing the north niche. Its east wall, in which was the door, was built so as to leave a passage to the first room ca. 125 cm.wide. The bricks were approximately the same as those used
in the main structure and first offering room. The north wall was built outside the line of the north face of the mastaba and the brickwork was carried around the northeast corner to form one jamb of an outer door. The other jamb of this was built against the south wall of mastaba G3093 before the casing of rubble was built around the latter.
In the northeast corner of the passage was a large block of limestone and fragments of small pointed jars of coarse red ware, thrown out when the burials were plundered, were scattered over the floor of the second room. The mastaba had three burial shafts, A being the main shaft, probably a re-use ot the old north shaft of G3091. Both B and C with their chambers were built askew with the axis of the mastaba, and while C had its chamber cut in the rock just below the surface, B was built wholly in the core of the mastaba. B and C may be later than the reconstruction of G3092. A later shaft X was sunk in the southwest corner of the second offering room.
A. Shaft: 122 x 138 cm., decreasing to 106 x 100 cm. at the bottom, and 529 cm. deep, lined with mud brick for 55 cm. above the rock and thence to top with rubble.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facing walls. Size 820 x 450 cm. exclusive of offering room. Orientated 9°E of N. Originally built of bricks 37 x 18 x 13 cm. An extra facing of rubble 50 cm. thick was added to the whole of the west and south sides.

This was not built at one time but in three separate stages. The west facing was built first in two stages, and the line of separation is clearly traceable in PI. 11 :i. This rubble had a batter of 81 ° 30′. When this was finished the southern casing was put on (Cf. also PI. 11:2 for a detail of the southwest corner). This rubble facing was erected after the completion of the offering room which was built of bricks 42 x 21 x 15 cm. The original brick east facade had a batter of 83° 40′ with a series of three double niches alternating with two single ones. At the south end there was a large break in the masonry where a niche stele had been built in. The southern double niche had been partly closed in by the stone stele of KHA-KHENMHT, NO. 5, and the space above filled in with rubble plastered over with mud flush with the facade.
Beside her stele stood that of her husband MEDEDY, NO. 4 which had been inserted in a roughly cut recess in the brickwork. These two stelae were later insertions.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facing walls. Size, 770×365 cm., orientated 8° E. of N. The bricks were dark gray, 40 x 21 x 14 cm., laid in dark gray mortar, the east facade having a batter of 85°. Along the east was a corridor offering room which had been extended around the south end of G3081. The bricks in the extension were yellowish, 33 x 16.5 x 12 cm. The north wall of the corridor, built between the two mastabas, was also of these bricks. In this wall was a window 35 cm. wide, and 120 cm. above the floor, the sill sloping down into the corridor. On the east facade was a double niche between two single ones. The interior of the corridor was plastered with yellow sandy plaster, and probably the whole exterior was covered in the same way. Over this was the usual fine finishing coat of white stucco.
There were four shafts A to D.
A. Shaft: At the top the brick opening was 115 x 100 cm., but at a distance of 105 cm. above the rock this was narrowed by a ledge in the brickwork on the north and west sides to 85 x 69 cm., and the shaft was cut this size in the rock to a total depth of 573 cm. Chamber at south, 154 x 234 cm. and 125 cm. high.
B. Shaft: 90×90 cm. and 570 cm. deep, lined with brick.
Chamber at west, 150×155 cm. and 105 cm. high. Empty.
C. Shaft: 85 x 90 cm. and 345 cm. deep, lined with brick.
Chamber at west, 108 x 70 cm. and 75 cm. high.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facing walls.

Size, 875 x 385 cm., orientated 8° 30′ E. of N. The structure was denuded to the lowest courses of brickwork. These courses run through under the rear wall of G3096 which was built over them at a slightly different orientation. The bricks were dark gray, 37 x 18 x 12-13 cm. On the east facade was a series of
at least five niches, alternately double and single, and possibly an additional two were concealed by a mass of structural rubble built at the northern end between this mastaba and G3093.
There were four shafts, A to D; at the south was a small serdab S. Later the superstructure for a grave X was built against the rear wall of the mastaba.
Mastaba, type III, built wholly of bricks. Size, 400×430 cm., orientated 8° 30′ E of N. Built over the north end of G3095.

Two varieties of bricks were used. In the lower part, including the linings of shafts, were dark gray bricks, 40 x 17 x 15 cm., while the upper walls and shafts had yellowish bricks, 32 x 18 (?) x 11.5 cm. The east wall had a batter of 83° 45′, while the north wall was 87° 10′. The east facade had two double niches, the southern one unusually deep. Above
the latter was the impression of a stone «log» lintel.
The offering room was built against the east facade and its size and plan were influenced by the mastabas already in existence around it. The north wall was built at a slight angle, made thinner toward the east, and the corner rounded off to
leave sufficient access to G3097 and the mastabas to the west.
The four shafts, A to D, were grouped in multiple type.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facings. The bricks were 35x17x12 cm., laid in gray sandy mortar.

Twice enlarged. Size of original structure, 700 x 390 cm., orientated 1° E of N. The original facade had two double niches with a single one between them. This face was plastered with mud and finished with white stucco.
There were four shafts, C to F.
Later an addition containing the shafts, A and B, was built against the south end of the east facade. This was of bricks 32 x 16 x 10 cm., and its new facade had one double niche.
Mastaba, type Ia, debris filling with brick facing. Original structure 500×230 cm. and orientated io° E. of N.

The bricks used were 24 x 12 x 11 cm. On the eastern facade were one single and two double niches. The single niche had a brick lintel, while the others were covered with flat stones. The original offering room may have had approximately the same size as the later vaulted space between this mastaba and the addition on the east. Sunk in the floor in front of the south niche was the offering basin of IY-MERER. Before the single niche at the north was the basin of Ruwz. Near the centre of the facade, but not opposite a niche, was the basin of PER-SENET.
Mastaba, type III, all brick. Size, 565 x 340 cm., orientated 3° E of N. Superstructure denuded to 105 cm. in height.
South end partly built over by the last addition to G3098. On east facade were four regularly spaced niches, two double and two single alternating.
Two shafts, A and B, on main axis.
A. Shaft: 90×85 cm. and 327 cm. deep, lined with brick.
Chamber at east, 101 x 165 cm. long, 102 cm. high.