Cemetery 6000
by Kent R. Weeks
Cemetery G 6000 lies in the southwesternmost section of the WF (Western Field), an area slightly more elevated than the areas to its east. In consequence of this position, blowing sand was not as severe a problem as it was in lower levels of the plateau, and at least parts of the mastabas here were visible to travellers even before the cemetery was cleared by Reisner.

Graffiti on many of the upper sections of the mastaba walls indicate that the structures were visited frequently during the nineteenth century, and there are frequent references in the writings of early travellers to the relief decoration the tombs contained. This was especially true of G6020, the mastaba of Iymery, which was one of the best-decorated of any of the Old Kingdom mastabas accessible to early travellers, and which never ceased to impress them. Its numerous scenes of craftsmen at work prompted Vyse and others after him to refer to the mastaba as the “Tomb of the Trades”, a phrase by which it was known in several early publications.

It is the work of Lepsius, LD (1842–43), however, which most thoroughly and conscientiously recorded the decoration in the G 6000 mastabas; and, although his drawings are not complete and not always correct, they still remain a major source of information for walls that have suffered from deterioration and vandalism during the last century.
The reclearing of the G 6000 cemetery that we conducted in 1972 and 1973 was intended to permit a reexamination of the plans of the mastabas. The original drawings of the structures, made by Reisner’s architect Alex Floroff, failed to show the individual stones of the superstructures, something we felt important to confirm the architectural history of the complex outlined by Reisner. In addition, the clearing allowed us to strengthen several badly damaged lintel blocks in the superstructures, to add protective steel grills to ceiling openings and steel doors to the mastaba entrances, and to install electric lamps in all of the roofed interior chambers. One of our ultimate goals was to leave the mastabas in a condition that would permit them to be visited by tourists without jeopardizing the safety of the reliefs. In 1987, G6010 and G6020 became the first tombs on the Giza Plateau to be so opened.
The stone from which the mastabas in Cemetery G6000 were constructed was quarried locally; it is the nummulitic limestone for which the Giza plateau is well known. Large numbers of marine fossils may be seen in the stones of the mastabas, including (in the north exterior wall of G6020) a well-preserved tail section of the rare fossil whale “Zeuglodon” brachyspondylus, about eighty centimeters long.
The presence of these fossils often posed a problem for the artisans who decorated the walls of the mastabas, and frequently it was necessary for them to apply buff-colored plaster to a wall surface before carving.
Mastaba G6010 
With subsidiary mastabas G6011, G6012, G6013, G6014, G6015.
Mastaba G6010, labelled “L15” by Lepsius, the mastaba tomb of Neferbauptah, was excavated by Reisner in November and December 1925. It is the southernmost of the large nucleus mastabas of concern to us in this volume and was described by Reisner as being of type VIIa with an interior two-niched chapel of type 4b. It covers an area of 144.32 square metres (16.4 x 8.8 m), has a height of 4.6 metres, and proportions of 1/1.86. Reisner notes an addition on E and N containing the exterior nummulitic chapel of type (12): this addition is L-shaped: the E–W arm containing the courtyard, room 4 (between portico and courtyard) and the pillared portico , measures 4.1 x 10.5 m. with an area of 43.05 sq. m.: the N–S arm containing serdab and rooms 1, 2, 3, measures 16.4 x 4.9 m. with an area of 80.36 sq. m.: total area of addition, 123.41 sq. m. total area of nucleus mastaba and exterior chapel, 267.73 sq. m. the E wall of the addition is built over the remains of an old construction plane: against the S end were remains of two construction planes.

Reisner described the innermost room 1 as follows: “Interior offering room of type (4a) with two painted
niches; 3.55 x 1.6 m; area, 5.68 sq. m; prop. 1/2.22; entered from pillared hall (room 4) from east by doorway in north end of east wall.”
Chamber 2, he described as “ pillared hall, nearly square; 4.15 x 3.25 m; area, 13.48 sq. m; roof supported by two pillars in N–S row,” with an architrave of three stones resting on the pillars. The ceiling, he notes, was found intact by Lepsius. “Serdab in south wall; entered from north from (1) by doorway in east end of north wall; doorway to room (3) in embrasure in middle of west wall.”
The courtyard itself is: large open court west of vestibule; 4.35 x 5.17 m.; area, 22.49 sq. m.; with standing life-size statue of Ptah-nefer-bauw in middle of west wall; entered from east from vestibule by spaces between the pillars.

The serdab, which lies to the south of chamber 2, is described in RN: “Serdab: E–W serdab, serdab in thickness of south wall of room 2 of the chapel; 1.0 x 4.8 m; area, 4.8 sq.m; height, 2.60 m.” The serdab connects to chamber 2 by means of three vertical slot windows cut through that chamber’s southern wall. Reisner found the serdab filled with sand but otherwise empty, and he states that it was probably plundered through the westernmost of the slot windows. The stone roofing slabs are still in place.
Except for an intrusive and unfinished shaft cut in the southwestern corner of the courtyard, G 6010 had only a single shaft (labelled “A” by Reisner, “G” by Lepsius), located just south of the middle of the nucleus mastaba. In RN it is described as follows: sole shaft; 1.4 x 1.32 m.; -9.9 m. [deep]; in middle of bottom, a step down 0.85 m.; from the bottom of the step, a roughly cut slope leads through the S side of the shaft, through the passage to the floor of the chamber, making a drop of 0.85 m. Total depth of chamber floor below the bottom of the shaft, 1.7 m.

The chamber at the bottom of the shaft is Reisner’s type 4b(2), with coffin recess in W wall; on S: 4.36 x 2.22–2.64 m.; h. 2.1 m.; area, 10.59 sq. m.; capacity, 22.24 cu. m. Coffin recess in middle of W wall, 2.44–2.64 x 1.56 m.; h., 1.96 m.; area, 3.96 sq. m.; capacity, 7.76 cu. m.; total area of chamber, 14.55 sq. m.; total capacity, 30.00 cu. m. Floor uneven, filled with limestone chips; S wall unfinished at its base. Passage: 0.72 x 1.0 m.; height on shaft side, 1.2 m.; on chamber side, 2.1 m.; the floor descends in a rough slope from base of step in shaft to the chamber floor just inside the chamber. Blocking: remains of rubble wall, bound with mud, 0.65 m. thick; type IIId(2); upper part broken away and a slope of mixed debris and drift-sand had poured in and formed a fanshaped slope around the doorway.
In the recess on the west side, there was an attached stone coffin with a “white limestone krst-lid; outside, irregular, 2.3 x 0.94 m; h. 0.85 m; cavity, 1.9 x 0.46 m; depth, 0.6 m; lid, 2.54 x 0.86 m; maximum thickness 0.25 m; rounded top between rudimentary end bars, no handles at ends.”
Mastaba G 6020
With subsidiary mastabas G6021, G6022, G6023.
The mastaba of Iymery, Lepsius’s number 16, Reisner’s G6020, is one of the most extensively decorated mastabas at Giza.
In Reisner’s classification, this is a two-niched mastaba of type IX a. It measures 20.25 x 11.1 m, and has an area of 224.78 sq. m, proportions of 1/1.82, a height of 5.7 m. Its walls are of heavy masonry, dressed on the east, south, and west. The north face was not dressed because of its proximity to the dressed south face of G6040.

The mastaba has an exterior chapel of type (8f), of nummulitic limestone, constructed around its southern niche, covering 75.0 sq. m. It consists of three rooms and a serdab, together with an open court in its northern section measuring 10.4 x 2.8 m, area of 29.12 m. The total area of the nucleus mastaba and the exterior chapel: 299.77 sq. m; the total of the mastaba, exterior chapel and court: 346.02 sq. m. The measurements of the chambers are: chamber 3: 3.9 x 1.4 m, area 5.46 sq. m, proportions 1/2.78; chamber 2: 1.5 x 6.45 m, area 9.67 sq. m; chamber 1: 3.2 x 1.6 m, area, 5.12 sq. m. Total area of the three chambers, 20.25 sq. m; of the three chambers plus courtyard, 49.37 m.
The long E–W serdab in G 6020 lies south of, and parallel to, chamber 2. It is connected to that room by three equally spaced window slots. The serdab measures 1.17 x 6.4 m, an area of 7.49 sq. m, and has a height of 3.0 m. The room had been broken into through the easternmost slot and Reisner found it filled with sand and bats’ dung, much of which had accumulated since Lepsius’s time. There were no statues or statue fragments found in the serdab, but Reisner believed that pieces found to the south, in the
courtyard of G6010, were likely to have come from here.
There was only one shaft here, lying near the middle of the nucleus mastaba, measuring 1.3 x 1.3 m, cut
—12.38 m into the bedrock. Its upper part was lined with nine courses of masonry blocks, larger ones above smaller ones, extending 4.47 m. The top originally was covered with a pavement of large nummulitic limestone blocks, many of which had been broken through by thieves in their search for the burial pit.
The chamber was of type 4 b(2); it measured 5.05 x 3.95 m; height, 2.05 m; area, 19.95 sq. m; capacity, 40.89 cu. m.
It was cut off the south side of the shaft. The passage was 0.9 x 1.25 m, height 1.85 m. There was a low step, 0.2 m, down from the floor of the passage to the floor of the chamber. No blocking was found in place, but a few pieces were found in debris in the doorway. The coffin pit measured 2.6 x 1.2 m along the west wall, and was 0.75 cm deep, with a narrow ledge along its west side, cut to hold the coffin lid before burial. A white limestone coffin lay in it, and measured 2.3 x 0.85 m, height 0.85 m, its top protruding
0.4 m above the chamber floor. The lid was broken and only a few fragments were found.
Mastaba G6030
With subsidiary mastabas G6031, G6032, G6033, G6034, G6035, G6036.
The small nucleus mastaba of Ity, called by Lepsius 17 and by Reisner G6030, was cleared by Reisner between November 18 and December 21, 1925.
G6030 consists of a nucleus mastaba with two niches in its eastern face (type IX a (1)), and measures 13.75 x 7.25 m, area 99.69 sq. m, proportions, 1/1.89, height 4.55 m. The roof, today only partly preserved because of damage caused by early tomb robbers, consisted of large blocks of nummulitic limestone. An addition on the east side of the nucleus mastaba contains the chapel, 13.75 x 2.85 m, area 39.18 sq. m. The added eastern wall here originally enclosed an open space along the front of the nucleus mastaba. There was a parapet on top of the eastern wall.

Later, the two ends of the corridor were roofed with limestone slabs. Adjacent to the eastern wall, the edge of the scarp is covered with 15–25 cm of clean limestone chips, mason’s debris, “the trodden surface of which forms the Old Kingdom floor.” Total area of the finished mastaba, 99.69 + 39.18 sq. m = 138.87 sq. m.
The chapel of Ity is a two-niched corridor-chapel of Reisner’s type 5a4 that has been formed by the addition of an enclosing wall on the north, south, and eastern sides.
Its interior measurements are 9.0 x 0.85 m, its area 7.65 sq. m, its proportions 1/10.58. After the decoration of its two niches, the north end of the chapel was roofed with five slabs of stone, the south end with four slabs. Entry is through a doorway at the northern end of the eastern wall, 2.05 x 0.45 m.
There are two serdabs, one in the north wall, one in the south of the exterior chapel, each with slot windows opening into the north and south walls of the offering room.
Shaft A
Sunk in the middle of the mastaba, this is one of two shafts. It measures 1.4 x 1.4 m, cut to -12.7 m into bedrock, and lined above with 4.55 m of masonry (nine courses) and an uppermost covering of paving stones that cover the mastaba. At the bottom of the shaft, the floor rises to the south, through a passage to a doorway and chamber of type 4 b(1). The chamber measures 3.86 x 3.68–3.48 x 2.0 m high, area 13.18 sq. m, volume 27.62 cu. m. The passage measures 1.15 x 1.2 m. There are no traces of blocking; drift sand has invaded the tomb.
 Mastaba G6040 
With subsidiary mastabas G6041, G6042, G6043, G6044.
The mastaba of Shepseskafankh was excavated by Reisner between November 26 and December 23, 1925. It was the first of the four major mastabas in the G 6000 cemetery to have been constructed, initially as a nucleus mastaba of type VII a(1) with a paved court, and later, with the addition of a complex chapel and corridor on the east, of type IX a.

The original part of the structure measures 14.8 x 9.75 m, area 144.3 sq. m, proportions 1/1.51, height 4.9 m and contains an interior chapel of type (4a) and a subsidiary north niche. The complex chapel, together with the corridor, vestibule, and colonnaded court, measure 14.7 x 10.15 m, area 149.2 sq. m. The total area of the finished mastaba is 292.50 sq. m. All of its parts are built of nummulitic limestone. On the west, there is an inclined ramp with parapets that runs from north to south, intended for the use of the funeral procession.

The Shafts
There are five shafts in G6040, all of them originally covered by a nummulitic limestone pavement which was removed by thieves. From north to south, north of the midline, lie “A” through “C.”
Shaft B. Principal shaft, lying south of “A.” Measuring 1.1 x 1.0 m, cut -14.14 m into bedrock and lined above with 5.0 m rubble. A low, 0.10 m, step up separates the bottom of shaft from the floor of the passage. Passage measures 0.54 x 1.04 x 1.55 m high with 0.45 m step down into chamber.
Mastaba G6050
With subsidiary mastabas G6051, G6052.
Excavated between November 26 and December 21, 1925, this mastaba is of type XI a(1), with a retaining wall of large, nummulitic limestone blocks, only partially dressed.
It measures 14.9 x 9.0 m, area 134.1 sq. m, proportions 1/1.65, height 2.71 m. There is no niche in its eastern face.

The chapel is an open-air passage between the eastface of G6050 and the back of G6010, 3.6 m wide at its
north end, 3.3 m wide at its south. It is of type (9d).
The serdab lay in the southeast corner of the mastaba, a N–S room measuring 2.6 x 1.1 m, area 1.86 sq. m, 1.40 m deep. It was lined with masonry, with no roofing or window slot preserved, filled with drift sand, and with no statuettes or fragments inside.
Shaft A
The mastaba has two shafts, “A” on the north, “B” on the south. In addition, there is an intrusive shaft,
“C,” in the southwest corner. Shaft “A” is the principal shaft here. It measures 1.6 x 1.55 m, cut -11.75 m into bedrock, and lined with 0.85 m of masonry and 0.8 m of rubble (a total of 1.65 m). The shaft is well cut and leads to a chamber, planned as type 4 but left unfinished and used as a type 6 b(1).